Hydrogenation Of Fats And Oils Pdf
File Name: hydrogenation of fats and oils .zip
Advice service. Oils such as vegetable, olive, sunflower are liquids at room temperature. In the food industry, hydrogen is added to oils in a process called hydrogenation to make them more solid, or 'spreadable'.
- Hydrogenation of Fats and Oils
- Hydrogenation of Edible oils
- Principles and catalysts for hydrogenation of fats and oils
As in the first edition, discussion is not confined to vegetable oils, and the hydrogenation technique is considered in detail. The "why" as well as the "how" of hydrogenation are addressed.
For many edible purposes and for some commercial applications it is desirable to produce solid fats. Many shortenings and margarines contain hydrogenated hardened oils as their major ingredients. The development of margarine and shortening products resulted from the invention of a successful method for converting low-melting unsaturated fatty acids and glycerides to higher-melting saturated products.
Hydrogenation of Fats and Oils
Hydrogenation of vegetable oils has been practiced since the discovery by Normann some 75 years ago and is the major chemical process in the fat and oil industry. Hydrogenation changes a liquid oil to a semisolid fat which has more utility and better flavor stability. The reaction is not a simple saturation of double bonds with hydrogen, but is an extremely complex series of reactions that result in a myriad of products. By control of the reaction conditions, pressure, temperature, agitation, and catalyst type and concentration, the desired product may be obtained. The use of new equipment and methods has produced some understanding of the hydrogenation reactions. This knowledge has allowed the production of better, more consistent products designed for use by the consumer.
Food companies began using hydrogenated oil to help increase shelf life and save costs. Hydrogenation is a process in which a liquid unsaturated fat is turned into a solid fat by adding hydrogen. During this manufactured partially hydrogenated processing, a type of fat called trans fat is made. While small amounts of trans fats are found naturally in some foods, most trans fats in the diet come from these processed hydrogenated fats. Partially hydrogenated oils are most commonly found in foods that also have saturated fat , such as:. According to the U. Food and Drug Administration FDA , a company can label a food free of trans fats if the actual content is 0.
Roslyn B. Alfin-Slater, Arthur F. Wells, Lilla Aftergood, Harry J. Deuel, Jr. A multigeneration study in which rats have been fed a ration containing 9.
Hydrogenation of Edible oils
The lipid hypothesis states that eating saturated fats leads to elevated LDL Low Density Lipoprotein which is perceived to be bad cholesterol. This will result in coronary heart disease which is hardening and narrowing of arteries resulting in heart attack. Unhealthy fats where perceived to be saturated fats, healthy fats where perceived to be unsaturated fats. A meta-analysis of 72 studies with over , people have found no validity in the lipid hypothesis. Dietary fats play a critical role in human health. They help keep cells healthy, help with brain development, help with the use of fat soluble vitamins, and they help cushion organs protecting them against blunt trauma.
The supply and demand of edible oils and fats is briefly reviewed, and certain trends, relevant for the application of fat modification techniques, are noted. The effect of hydrogenation conditions on a number of selectivity aspects in hydrogenation with nickel catalysts is explained in terms of mass transport effects for hydrogen and triglycerides. The effect of selectivity on stability and melting behavior is also discussed. The limitations of the existing hydrogenation process with nickel are pointed out, and possible extensions by use of other catalysts, such as sulphur poisoned nickel, copper, and chromium complexes, are mentioned. Some technological aspects of the process are briefly reviewed. This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution. Unilever Ltd.
Hydrogenation of vegetable oils has been practiced since the discovery by Normann some 75 years ago and is the major chemical process in the fat and oil.
Principles and catalysts for hydrogenation of fats and oils
In nutrition , biology , and chemistry , fat usually means any ester of fatty acids , or a mixture of such compounds ; most commonly those that occur in living beings or in food. The term often refers specifically to triglycerides triple esters of glycerol , that are the main components of vegetable oils and of fatty tissue in animals;  or, even more narrowly, to triglycerides that are solid or semisolid at room temperature, thus excluding oils. The term may also be used more broadly as a synonym of lipid -- any substance of biological relevance, composed of carbon , hydrogen , or oxygen , that is insoluble in water but soluble in non-polar solvents. Fats are one of the three main macronutrient groups in human diet , along with carbohydrates and proteins ,   and the main components of common food products like milk , butter , tallow , lard , bacon , and cooking oils. They are a major and dense source of food energy for many animals and play important structural and metabolic functions, in most living beings, including energy storage, waterproofing, and thermal insulation.
Some vegetable oils were hydrogenated with scrap automobile catalyst SAC as a catalyst. The optimum reaction conditions solvent, reaction time, and catalyst amount were determined. Our results showed that the linoleic acid was reduced to elaidic acid in the sunflower oil. This procedure not only gives high yields but also allows recycling of automobile wastes as a catalyst in organic reactions and is representative of green chemistry.
Vegetable oils , or vegetable fats , are oils extracted from seeds or, less often, from other parts of fruits. Like animal fats , vegetable fats are mixtures of triglycerides. Olive oil , palm oil , and rice bran oil are examples of fats from other parts of fruits. In common usage, vegetable oil may refer exclusively to vegetable fats which are liquid at room temperature. Oils extracted from plants have been used since ancient times and in many cultures.
The physical properties of oils and fats depend on their chemical properties, such as unsaturation, saturation, chain length, and distribution of the three hydroxyl groups of glycerol in the fatty acids. These characteristics change by hydrogenation, fractionation, blending, and interesterification IE , hence improving the spectrum for the application of the oils and fats.
Под его ногами была потайная дверь, почти неразличимая на полу. В руке он сжимал ключ, взятый из лаборатории систем безопасности. Чатрукьян опустился на колени, вставил ключ в едва заметную скважину и повернул. Внизу что-то щелкнуло. Затем он снял наружную защелку в форме бабочки, снова огляделся вокруг и потянул дверцу на. Она была небольшой, приблизительно, наверное, метр на метр, но очень тяжелой.
Не спрашивай меня, как это случилось, - сказал он, уставившись в закрытый люк. - Но у меня такое впечатление, что мы совершенно случайно обнаружили и нейтрализовали Северную Дакоту. - Он покачал головой, словно не веря такую удачу.
Сьюзан едва успела взбежать на верхнюю площадку лестницы и вцепиться в перила, когда ее ударил мощный порыв горячего ветра. Повернувшись, она увидела заместителя оперативного директора АНБ; он стоял возле ТРАНСТЕКСТА, не сводя с нее глаз. Вокруг него бушевала настоящая буря, но в его глазах она увидела смирение.
Ты нашла ключ. Сьюзан покачала головой. Стратмор наморщил лоб и прикусил губу. Мысли его метались.
ГЛАВА 71 Токуген Нуматака закурил уже четвертую сигару и принялся мерить шагами кабинет, потом схватил телефонную трубку и позвонил на коммутатор.