Theory X And Theory Y Pdf
File Name: theory x and theory y .zip
- Theory X and Theory Y published in the Sage Encyclopedia of Management Theories
- Managerial Belief Systems: Douglas McGregor’s Theory X vs Theory Y
- Theory X & Theory Y
- Theory X and Theory Y
Theory X is more suitable for occupations with manual labor or workers in the jobs associated with assembling of parts and the jobs where the workers want to fulfill their lower order needs of the hierarchy. From this reason of Theory X self-fulfilling prophecy nature, McGregor proposed another theory which is alternative to the Theory X i.. Theory X and Theory Y are the two theories of motivation suitable for the workplace; the essence of these theories states that how two different managerial styles motivate the workers on the basis of two opposing assumptions. Theory X Theory X assumes that employees dislike working, naturally, they are unmotivated, ambitionless, non-initiative and dislike responsibilities..
Theory X and Theory Y published in the Sage Encyclopedia of Management Theories
In his book, The Human Side of Enterprise , McGregor proposed two theories by which managers perceive and address employee motivation. He referred to these opposing motivational methods as Theory X and Theory Y management. Essentially, Theory X assumes that the primary source of employee motivation is monetary, with security as a strong second. Under Theory X, one can take a hard or soft approach to getting results. The hard approach to motivation relies on coercion, implicit threats, micromanagement, and tight controls— essentially an environment of command and control. The soft approach, however, is to be permissive and seek harmony in the hopes that, in return, employees will cooperate when asked.
The paper used hierarchical linear modeling to test the hypotheses. The findings of the present study suggest that the Theory X and Y managerial assumptions are a worthwhile basis from which to examine several important organizational and individual outcomes. The sample consisted of military personnel and were predominantly male. This may limit the generalizability of the findings. Although McGregor's Theory X and Y have contributed to management and leadership thinking and practice for many years; empirical studies examining the Theory X and Y managerial assumptions in a work environment are very scarce. By examining the effect of leader's Theory X and Y managerial assumptions on follower's attitudes and behaviors, the study provides important insights for leadership literature. The views expressed in this paper are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Ministry of National Defense or the Turkish Armed Forces.
Managerial Belief Systems: Douglas McGregor’s Theory X vs Theory Y
After reading you will understand the background and the practical basics of these leadership styles. He referred to these two perceptions as Theory X and Theory Y. Theory XIn Theory X, summarizes the traditional view of management in a number of characteristic assumptions in which style, close supervision and the hierarchical principle are the key elements. Theory X starts from the assumption that people are naturally lazy, want to avoid work as much as possible, do not wish to take responsibility, have no ambition and prefer to be supervised. The authoritarian leadership style is therefore the most appropriate leadership style in Theory X. According to this theory, pure work motivation consists of financial incentives. People want to avoid work and they must be continually coerced and controlled.
He did not imply that workers would be one type or the other. Rather, he saw the two theories as two extremes - with a whole spectrum of possible behaviours in between. The management implications for Theory X workers were that, to achieve organisational objectives, a business would need to impose a management system of coercion, control and punishment. Depending on the working conditions, work could be considered a source of satisfaction or punishment. The management implications for Theory X workers are that, to achieve organisational objectives, rewards of varying kinds are likely to be the most popular motivator. The challenge for management with Theory Y workers is to create a working environment or culture where workers can show and develop their creativity.
Theory X & Theory Y
Work is changing. And the approach to and requirements of leadership are changing with it. The modern manager knows how to distribute responsibility, instill trust in their employees, and motivate team members to deliver their best work and ideas. But there are times when management is less about leadership and more about the staunch enforcement of rules and micromanagement of production. These differing management styles have been coined in the academic management community as Theory X and Theory Y.
Theory X and Theory Y are theories of human work motivation and management. The two theories proposed by McGregor describe contrasting models of workforce motivation applied by managers in human resource management , organizational behavior , organizational communication and organizational development. Theory X explains the importance of heightened supervision, external rewards, and penalties, while Theory Y highlights the motivating role of job satisfaction and encourages workers to approach tasks without direct supervision. Management use of Theory X and Theory Y can affect employee motivation and productivity in different ways, and managers may choose to implement strategies from both theories into their practices. McGregor also believed that self-actualization was the highest level of reward for employees.
Theory X and Theory Y are still referred to commonly in the field of management and motivation, and whilst more recent studies have questioned the rigidity of the model, Mcgregor's X-Y Theory remains a valid basic principle from which to develop positive management style and techniques. McGregor's XY Theory remains central to organisational development, and to improving organisational culture.
Theory X and Theory Y
Выражение его лица тут же смягчилось. - Сьюзан, извини. Это кошмар наяву. Я понимаю, ты расстроена из-за Дэвида.
Контакты на кончиках пальцев замкнулись, и на линзах очков, подобно бестелесным духам, замелькали буквы. ОБЪЕКТ: РОСИО ЕВА ГРАНАДА - ЛИКВИДИРОВАНА ОБЪЕКТ: ГАНС ХУБЕР - ЛИКВИДИРОВАН Тремя этажами ниже Дэвид Беккер заплатил по счету и со стаканом в руке направился через холл на открытую террасу гостиницы. - Туда и обратно, - пробормотал. Все складывалось совсем не так, как он рассчитывал. Теперь предстояло принять решение.
Вы набрали правильно, - сказал он осторожно, - но это служба сопровождения. Звонивший некоторое время молчал. - О… понимаю. Прошу прощения. Кто-то записал его, и я подумал, что это гостиница.
Theory X, Theory Y, and Theory Z
Толпа стала еще плотнее, а улица шире. Они двигались уже не по узкому боковому притоку, а по главному руслу. Когда улица сделала поворот, Беккер вдруг увидел прямо перед собой собор и вздымающуюся ввысь Гиральду. Звон колоколов оглушал, эхо многократно отражалось от высоких стен, окружающих площадь. Людские потоки из разных улиц сливались в одну черную реку, устремленную к распахнутым дверям Севильского собора.
Тогда она осторожно двинулась в направлении Третьего узла. Подойдя поближе, она увидела, что в руке Хейла зажат какой-то предмет, посверкивавший в свете мониторов. Сьюзан сделала еще несколько шагов и вдруг поняла, что это за предмет. В руке Хейл сжимал беретту.