female reproductive system anatomy and physiology pdf

Female Reproductive System Anatomy And Physiology Pdf

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Unique for its role in human reproduction, a gamete is a specialized sex cell carrying 23 chromosomes—one half the number in body cells. At fertilization, the chromosomes in one male gamete, called a sperm or spermatozoon , combine with the chromosomes in one female gamete, called an oocyte. The paired testes are a crucial component in this process, as they produce both sperm and androgens, the hormones that support male reproductive physiology. In humans, the most important male androgen is testosterone.

26.5A: Anatomy of the Female Reproductive System

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Please consult the latest official manual style if you have any questions regarding the format accuracy. The female reproductive system consists of the paired ovaries and oviducts or uterine tubes , the uterus, the vagina, and the external genitalia Figure 22—1.

This system produces the female gametes oocytes , provides the environment for fertilization, and holds the embryo during its complete development through the fetal stage until birth.

As with male gonads, the ovaries produce steroidal sex hormones that control organs of the reproductive system and influence other organs. Beginning at menarche , when the first menses occurs, the reproductive system undergoes monthly changes in structure and function, which are controlled by neurohormonal mechanisms. Menopause is a variably timed period during which the cyclic changes become irregular and eventually disappear.

In the postmenopausal period the reproductive organs slowly involute. Although the mammary glands do not belong to the genital system, they are included here because they undergo changes directly connected to the functional state of the reproductive organs.

The female reproductive system and overview of ovary. Human Anatomy. Ovaries are almond-shaped bodies approximately 3-cm long, 1. Each ovary is covered by a simple cuboidal epithelium, the surface or germinal epithelium , continuous with the mesothelium and overlying a layer of dense connective tissue capsule, the tunica albuginea , like that of the testis.

Most of the ovary consists of the cortex , a region with a stroma of highly cellular connective tissue and many ovarian follicles varying greatly in size after menarche Figure 22—1. The most internal part of the ovary, the medulla , contains loose connective tissue and blood vessels entering the organ through the hilum from mesenteries suspending the ovary Figures 22—1 and 22—2. There is no distinct border between the ovarian cortex and the medulla. Follicle development and changes within the ovary.

The ovary produces both oocytes and sex hormones. A diagram of a sectioned ovary a shows the different stages of follicle maturation , ovulation , and corpus luteum formation and degeneration. All of the stages and structures shown in this diagram actually would appear at different times during the ovarian cycle and do not occur simultaneously. Forgot Password?

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In: Mescher AL. Mescher A. Anthony L. McGraw-Hill; Accessed March 16, APA Citation The female reproductive system. Mescher AL. Download citation file: RIS Zotero. Reference Manager.

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27.1: Anatomy and Physiology of the Male Reproductive System

Uterus , also called womb , an inverted pear-shaped muscular organ of the female reproductive system , located between the bladder and the rectum. It functions to nourish and house a fertilized egg until the fetus , or offspring, is ready to be delivered. The uterus has four major regions: the fundus is the broad curved upper area in which the fallopian tubes connect to the uterus; the body, the main part of the uterus, starts directly below the level of the fallopian tubes and continues downward until the uterine walls and cavity begin to narrow; the isthmus is the lower, narrow neck region; and the lowest section, the cervix , extends downward from the isthmus until it opens into the vagina. The uterus is 6 to 8 cm 2. The width of the organ varies; it is generally about 6 cm wide at the fundus and only half this distance at the isthmus. The uterine cavity opens into the vaginal cavity, and the two make up what is commonly known as the birth canal. Lining the uterine cavity is a moist mucous membrane known as the endometrium.

Reproductive Tract Anatomy and Physiology of the Cow

These organs do the following jobs within your body:. The male reproductive system is made up of internal inside your body and external outside your body parts. Together, these organs help you urinate rid your body of liquid waste materials , have sexual intercourse and make children. Most of the male reproductive system is located outside of your abdominal cavity or pelvis. The external parts of the male reproductive system include the penis, the scrotum and the testicles.

These parts are internal; the vagina meets the external organs at the vulva, which includes the labia, clitoris, and urethra. The vagina is attached to the uterus through the cervix, while the uterus is attached to the ovaries via the fallopian tubes. At certain intervals, the ovaries release an ovum, which passes through the fallopian tube into the uterus. If, in this transit, it meets with sperm, the sperm penetrates and merges with the egg, fertilizing it. The fertilization usually occurs in the oviducts, but can happen in the uterus itself.

Female reproductive system

Understanding the anatomy and physiology of the cow's reproductive system is fundamental to good cattle management. Basic knowledge in this area will help producers do a better job of getting cows rebred, especially when using artificial insemination and estrus synchronization. It will also enable producers to better understand and control reproductive diseases and calving problems. The ovary is the primary female reproductive organ and has two important functions: producing the female reproductive cell the egg or ovum and producing the hormones estrogen and progesterone.

Anatomy and Physiology of the Female Reproductive System


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This chapter will review the female and male reproductive systems and the menstrual cycle as it relates to reproduction. Female Reproductive Anatomy and​.


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