difference between traditional by hand and modern by machine method of planting rice pdf

Difference Between Traditional By Hand And Modern By Machine Method Of Planting Rice Pdf

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Published: 27.04.2021

Evolution of Rice Farming in Ubon Ratchathani Province

Sustainable food production is one of the major challenges of the twenty-first century in the era of global environmental problems such as climate change, increasing population and natural resource degradation including soil degradation and biodiversity loss. Climate change is among the greatest threats to agricultural systems. Green Revolution though multiplied agricultural production several folds but at the huge environmental cost including climate change. It jeopardized the ecological integrity of agroecosystems by intensive use of fossil fuels, natural resources, agrochemicals and machinery. Moreover, it threatened the age-old traditional agricultural practices. Agriculture is one of the largest sectors that sustain livelihood to maximum number of people and contribute to climate change.

As a main source of nourishment for over half the world's population, rice is by far one of the most important commercial food crops. Its annual yield worldwide is approximately million tons. Southeast Asian countries separately support an annual production rate of million metric tons of which they export very little. Collectively, they are termed the Rice Bowl. Over million acres of Asian land is used for growing rice.

Paddy field

A seed drill also hoe drill ; seeder is a device used in agriculture that sows seeds for crops by positioning them in the soil and burying them to a specific depth. This ensures that seeds will be distributed evenly. The seed drill sows the seeds at the proper seeding rate and depth, ensuring that the seeds are covered by soil. This saves them from being eaten by birds and animals, or being dried up due to exposure to sun. With seed drill machines, seeds are distributed in rows; however, the distance between seeds along the row cannot be adjusted by the user as in the case of vacuum precision planters.

How is rice grown

Mechanized agriculture plays a key role in the overall socio-economic development in terms of food security, value addition, employment, poverty alleviation and export earnings. Due to the migration of agricultural labor in non-farm sectors and increasing climate vulnerability, it is a great challenge to keep pace of food production for the exponential growth of population, especially in the developing countries. Hence, the main aim of this study was to examine the present status and impact of modern rice harvesting practices over traditional manual harvesting. In order to investigate the interactions between modern rice harvesting technologies and benefits of use, we reviewed overall scenarios of rice harvesting in the world along with identified problems due to present practices and the benefit of using modern technologies including precision agriculture. The major findings of this study were as follows: agriculture in most of the developing countries were characterized by low productivity due to less practice of modern technologies, less management of modern technologies, inadequate control of repeated crop losses due to natural calamities.

A granary can represent a certain set of farming activities reflecting cultural and regional characteristics, and also be associated with symbolic meanings. The traditional raised-floor rice granary in Bali, Indonesia, called a Lumbung, only survives in specific areas of the island today. What is the factor underlying its survival and disappearance?

Rice farming in Northeast Thailand has changed significantly in the past few decades, becoming more commercialised and mechanised. This has involved increased use of high-yielding seed, inorganic fertilisers, and machinery, especially for land preparation and harvesting, and lower use of family labour as household workers find more profitable non-farm employment, often outside the district and province. Three contrasting villages in Ubon Ratchathani Province were selected for this study to investigate the use of rice farming technologies, especially fertiliser and machinery, to estimate the returns to the farm household from rice production, and to identify the problems and potential of different approaches to the development of rice farming in the region. Comparing the three villages shows that, even after several decades of commercialisation in the Northeast, rice farming is following different trajectories and making different contributions to household livelihoods, depending on the goals and circumstances of individual households and communities. Alternative agriculture based on organic production methods can be a viable pathway alongside conventional commercial agriculture.


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