hide and skin production in ethiopia pdf

Hide And Skin Production In Ethiopia Pdf

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Review on Hide and Skin Value Chain in Ethiopia

Scientific Research An Academic Publisher. According to [1] , Ethiopia is a home for This indicates the country possesses the largest livestock population in the world. Traditionally livestock is an important sub-sector within Ethiopian Economy in terms of its contribution both to agricultural value-added production and to the national economy.

Livestock contributes to the production of meat, milk, eggs, blood, industrial raw materials, wool, hair, hides and skin. Leather from animal skin has been chemically modified to produce a strong, flexible material that resists decay. All hides and skins that enter the market for transformation into leather originate from slaughter animals that provide for meat, and hence their hide or skin is a by-product of the meat industry.

According to [2] [3] , annual off-take rate has reached 9. So, this indicated Ethiopia is endowed with the resource base required for the commercial production of leather and leather products.

Contrarily to other commodities, as far as meat consumption is concerned, hides and skins are produced everywhere, in each village and town, in each and every country, all over the world, without exclusion. Each continent and all seas and oceans produce hides and skins. Where there are people, independent from race, religion or political association, there is a production of hides and skins. Currently, 30 tanneries and 18 enterprises manufacturing leather products operate in the country producing products ranging from various forms of leather articles such as shoe uppers, leather garments, stitched upholstery, school bags, handbags, industrial gloves and finished leather.

Parallel to modern tanning, Ethiopia is also one of the African countries with the presence of huge number of traditional tanners. It is estimated that there are about more than household traditional tanners in the country, mainly scattered in the northern part of Amhara, Tigray and Oromia regions of the country.

In Amhara region alone, traditional tanners are found. Nationally they have a capacity to utilize more than , hides per annum. They purchase huge amount of hides due to their ability to pay better price than tanneries and their availability in the nearby compound. In many civilizations around the world, animal hides and skins were processed and used for various purposes since time immemorial. Even if the involvement of local tanners in collecting the hides in market is significant, the number and capacity of stakeholders in this group have not been exhaustively studied.

Detail analysis on the utilization, processing, marketing and future prospect was not exhaustively investigated. Hence this study mainly focused on undertaking to examine the process, the marketing and methods applied in the traditional leather production. A researcher accompanied with data collector, a detailed and organized semi structured questionnaire was designed to generate base line information related to traditional leather processing with particular emphasis on major leather production and marketing.

The questionnaire was framed in such a way that tanners could give information that are recent and easy to recall and it was filled directly by interviewing 30 randomly selected elder male local tanners who perform traditional leather processing in addition to farming from different villages of the 3 peasant associations for three consecutive weeks. Informal group discussion with development agent had also been held to generate relevant information about traditional leather production problems in the study area.

The interview questions include: list out the major steps in traditional leather processing, how many days does it take to produce a single product based on the item product, purpose of using cattle hide, problems faced during purchasing of cattle hide, social status of tanners, type of tanning agents Figure 1.

The involvement of traditional tanners for competing and purchasing hides in the market is significant that the volume of raw hide they absorb is more than , per annum. All the indigenous family members of tanners who work through the leather process were males. They were made up of young and middle-aged men. The old men in the profession were no more working effectively as they used to.

All the indigenous tanners interviewed said that their profession used to be very good some years back. Most of the indigenous tanners had been in the profession for a very long time inherited from their ancestors.

Figure 1. Semi-structured interview with local tanners. Traditional tanning is usually the professions that give a different status to their practitioners. It is a labor intensive undertaking as the majority of the processing and manufacturing of cottage industry. Many of the families and workers live around the local tanneries and their skills are passed down from generation to generation through the male lineage.

By tradition, local tanners in the study area belong to a low-cast and are looked down upon. This artisanal group has suffered from prejudice and relative isolation in society and they are only accepted to make marriage among themselves. Traditional leather production is one of the polluting cottage industry around the communities This happened because of generations of huge amount of solid and liquid wastes such as wastes of fleshing, buffing dust, skin trimmings, hair drops and poison plant residues left after processing, emitting of obnoxious smell due to degradation of proteinous material of hide and generation of gases such as NH 3 , H 2 S and CO 2.

Accumulation of these wastes leads to sludge problem. Even if treatment of solid wastes were not cost effective, they were not in a position to create a new way of processing. Traditional leather processing in the study area are facing lot of solid waste problems and many local tanneries drop their works due to external forces of the nearby cities and urban dweller expansion for not meeting environmentally friendly production of leather Figure 2. Compounding the small size problem for modern tanneries is that traditional tanneries market and manufacture all kind of products widely used by the rural household that do not require large, well-preserved, or unblemished hides.

Therefore the traditional tannery, the demand for whose products remains strong, can purchase a large volume of all types and sizes of hides before they ever circulate in the formal hide and skin val-.

Figure 2. Hide soaking I the nearby river. In the study areas, traditional tanneries operate as the most convenient buyer for small producers, since producers can sell to the traditional tannery whatever type and grade of hide they have as they are located in the nearby community. The selling and buying of hides in the study area has its own demarcated area where mostly carried out on market days that are held mostly once in a week on Saturday.

The buying and selling practice is traditional in which buyers and sellers directly bargain based on the past market price, physical size of the hide and the presence or absence of visible defects on the raw stock. It is therefore important to investigate the pros and.

Figure 3. Traditional market area for hides and leather products. Table 1. Number of local tanners and their distribution in the region. According to the information derived from the region, south Gondar and west Gojam are the leading zones in having highest number of local tanners in the study area of the region. The study showed that traditional leather tanning in the study area has been practiced along a family-based rural social cottage structure for decades, using traditional techniques and materials to produce traditional leathers.

All the traditional tanners interviewed in the communities said this business were males aged between 17 to 65 years. The respondents pointed out that on average they have been processing leather for between 5 to 40 years. The local tanners explained that the skill was acquired from their grand fathers, fathers, brothers, relatives or other male tanners in their communities.

They all concurred that they only tanned hides from cattle bulls, heifers, calves. The hides which were usually processed from the dried state except occasionally bought fresh products were either flayed by the local tanners themselves or purchased from the nearby village or neighboring market which was demarcated and sited separately from the live animal trading centers Table 2.

The traditional processing of hides into leather is a complex procedure that requires a precise combination of many chemical and or mechanical operations. The start of the traditional tanning process begins with the collection and sorting of the raw hides. Traditional tanners usually bought hides from the nearby market Figure 3 ; however, they also buy from big suppliers especially when prices fall in the market with subsequent fall in demand for raw products.

In such a situation, they manage to pay better prices as compared to prices paid by tanning industries or raw hide skin suppliers. Focus of the traditional leather producing cottage industry is the transformation of untreated hides that are brittle under dry conditions and may rot under wet conditions. Table 2. Materials used. After the local tanners bought dried hides, the processes in converting hides into durable product, commonly there are basic practical steps followed in the area.

Leather production involves various preparatory stages, tanning, and crusting. These stages have been classified under three broad arranges as follows; the preparatory stage, tanning stage and the crusting stage. The first task for the local tanners is to collect the raw hide and this is usually a cow hide dried by sun or in very few occasions fresh hide collected from primary producers and small traders in their vicinities.

Those in which the hide is prepared for tanning it includes soaking, washing, flesh removal, hair removal, scudding and deliming. The dried hides collected from market are subjected to become soft by soaking the hides in the river basin Figure 4. Soaking Solid waste in the local tanners the main wastes are solid by products and liquid wastes.

These include hide dusting, raw hide trimmings, and hair from liming and then rinsing is the first step in traditional leather making. According to the interview, the first step when traditionally making hides into leather is to thoroughly clean them. Soaking will help soften the hides, making the next steps easier to perform and important to remove dirt, debris, blood and excess animal fat from the hides.

This has been done by simply soaking the hides in water for about 3 days in the nearby river; tanners with bare foot will immerse early in the morning and bring back to home during evening for just protecting from theft and carnivorous animals.

The next day they will take to the river, the same steps will be followed for 3 consecutive days depending the nature and thickness of the hide. Washing will help soften the hides, making the next steps easier to perform. The purpose of this operation, as the local tanners explained, was to increase the amount of water in the hide close to that of the living hide, remove foreign bodies, hair and loosen the hide structure. The waste river water is discharged into a river where both animals and even on the upper part used for human drinking.

No water treatment mechanisms are set. Figure 4. Soaking of hides in the nearby river. After the hide become relatively soften, they bring back to their backyard around homestead and dry on the sun by stretching on the ground using woods for stretching Figure 5.

The flesh side of the stretched hides will be on the above sun side for fleshing. Fleshing is just to cut away unwanted fat and flesh. In this process, hairs are removed through knife and axes.

According to the interview, the aim of this process was to loosen the flesh and unwanted fat still adhering to the materials. Excess flesh, fat and muscle must now be removed from the hides.

This was done with a fleshing axe. The scraping axes were then used vigorously to remove the fats and meat leaf from the grain side of the hide.

The soaked hides are transported to tan pit or vats immersed in a mixture of cow urine, grinded vegetable fruits and water Figure 6. These mixtures loosen excess fat, flesh. Figure 5. Removal of fat and excess flesh.

Major Factors Affecting Hide and Skin Production, Quality and the Tanning Industry in Ethiopia

Skins and hides are perishable resources that can be damaged by parasitic diseases and human error, which result in downgrading or rejection. This study was conducted to identify defect types and to determine their prevalence in pickled sheep and wet blue goat skins and wet blue hides. Each selected skin or hide was examined for defects in natural light and the defects were graded according to established quality criteria in Ethiopian standard manuals. Major defects were captured by digital photography. The major pre-slaughter defects included scratches

Box , Mettu, Ethiopia. Hides and skin is an important strategic sector for the economic and industrial development of Ethiopia. Though the country has very good potential for supplying finished skins and hides products to the world market, the quality of skins and hides supplied has rather deteriorated over time. Therefore, this seminar was conducted to review hide and skin value chain in Ethiopia, to review hide and skin value chain actors, maps and its value addition in Ethiopia, to review the major constraints and opportunities of hide and skin in Ethiopia ,to review hides and skins production ,utilization and its constraint in Ethiopia and to review hide and skin marketing and its constraints in Ethiopia. Poor quality of hides and skins , Poor animal husbandry ,Improper preserved hides and skins ,Lack of price incentives ,absence of quality grading, reflections of the economic policy, market information, and requirements from the tanneries and end market are main challenge observed hide and skin value chain.


The opportunities of hides and skins sector in Ethiopia are raw material availability due to the large livestock base in pastoral areas, ready market.


Major Factors Affecting Hide and Skin Production, Quality and the Tanning Industry in Ethiopia

Research Article. Received: June 03, ; Published: June 24, A study was conducted to evaluate the knowledge and practices of producers, collectors and processors on hide and skin quality managements and associated risk factors and common defects on raw and processed hide and skins at export centers. Primary, secondary and visual assessments were used as data collection tools. The respondent males

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Ethiopia is believed to have the largest livestock population in Africa. An estimate indicates that the country is a home for about 54 million cattle, Therefore, this study was conducted in three selected districts of Gambelia regional state with the objective to assess the production potentials and preservation methods of hide and skin. Hides and skins could be obtained from fish, birds and reptiles as well as wild and domesticated animals. The sample size of the study was estimated to be from Gambella zuria, from Godare and from Lare using the formula stated in Thrust field.

Major Factors Affecting Hide and Skin Production , Quality and the Tanning Industry in Ethiopia

Когда он клал конверт в одну из ячеек, Беккер повернулся, чтобы задать последний вопрос: - Как мне вызвать такси. Консьерж повернул голову и. Но Беккер не слушал, что тот. Он рассчитал все. Рука консьержа только что покинула ячейку под номером 301.

Что же предпринять. ГЛАВА 25 Городская больница закрылась для посетителей. Свет в бывшем гимнастическом зале выключили. Пьер Клушар спал глубоким сном и не видел склонившегося над ним человека. Игла похищенного у медсестры шприца блеснула в темноте и погрузилась в вену чуть выше запястья Клушара. Шприц был наполнен тридцатью кубиками моющего средства, взятого с тележки уборщицы.

Коммандер в два счета выставит Хейла - все-таки сегодня суббота. Но она отдавала себе отчет в том, что, если Хейла отправят домой, он сразу же заподозрит неладное, начнет обзванивать коллег-криптографов, спрашивать, что они об этом думают, В конце концов Сьюзан решила, что будет лучше, если Хейл останется. Он и так скоро уйдет. Код, не поддающийся взлому. Сьюзан вздохнула, мысли ее вернулись к Цифровой крепости.


Ethiopia is believed to have the largest livestock population in Africa. Livestock subsector makes the major contribution to the overall economy.


Беккер ощутил тупую боль в желудке. - У кого же. В глазах Клушара вспыхнуло возмущение.

А вы ищете проститутку.

 - В первый раз мы этого не заметили. Сьюзан не отрываясь смотрела на эту малоприятную картину. Танкадо задыхался, явно стараясь что-то сказать добрым людям, склонившимся над .

Он посмотрел на нее умоляюще и покрутил затекшей шеей. - У меня затекли плечи. Мидж не поддалась.

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