studies in health technology and informatics pdf

Studies In Health Technology And Informatics Pdf

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Information and communication technology are integral to all areas of health care, from organisational management to the delivery of patient care and health promotion.

Healthcare informatics or biomedical informatics is the branch of science and engineering that apply informatics fields to medicine. The health domain provides an extremely wide variety of problems that can be tackled using computational techniques. Medical informatics is a spectrum of multidisciplinary fields that includes study of the design, development and application of computational innovations to improve health care.

Studies in Health Technology and Informatics

Published on Authors of this article:. It is a critical and important task to take thorough efforts to prevent and control the pandemic. Compared with severe acute respiratory syndrome and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, COVID spreads more rapidly owing to increased globalization, a longer incubation period, and unobvious symptoms.

As the coronavirus has the characteristics of strong transmission and weak lethality, and since the large-scale increase of infected people may overwhelm health care systems, efforts are needed to treat critical patients, track and manage the health status of residents, and isolate suspected patients. Applications and evaluations of all of these technologies, practices, and health delivery services are highlighted in this study.

In December , an emerging infectious outbreak was found in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China, and it was caused by the novel coronavirus nCoV [ 1 , 2 ]. At present, the pandemic is spreading across the whole world [ 3 ]. There has been human-to-human and health care worker transmission, but the source of the coronavirus disease COVID has not been found; the route of pandemic transmission has not been fully understood. The virus may mutate, and further spread is almost certain.

Integrating novel health technologies and practices such as artificial intelligence AI , big data, 5G mobile networks, Internet of Things IoT , mobil health applications, telehealth services, and health information exchange HIE services [ 5 ] into health care systems can aid in the following ways: reporting and monitoring human transmission information, data assortment and analysis, tracking and sending alarms, etc.

All of these functions are helpful to provide strong support in pandemic prevention and control. Figure 1 demonstrates a framework of health technologies, informatics, and digital services following a modified fit between individuals, task, and technology FITT framework [ 6 ]. Taking advantage of health technologies in assisting the investigation and judgment of the pandemic will innovate diagnosis and treatment, improve service efficiency, and strengthen the capacity of information technology to support pandemic prevention and control.

The specific schemes are described in the following sections. To carry out the real-time development of pandemic tracking, key screening, and effective prediction, we should make full use of disease prevention and control information systems, and actively adopt the method of online pandemic information reporting. Big data technology will provide support for scientific prevention and policy development. The health care systems need to form a multisource platform that integrates data monitoring, exchange, convergence, and feedback mechanisms for road, railway, civil aviation, communications, medical, and other pandemic-related parties.

The integrated platform will enhance the information linkage with public security, transportation, and other departments. COVID diagnosis and suspected medical record collection need to be used to conduct analysis and application from the regional and national health information platform, which aids in the pandemic prevention and control, clinical treatment, and scientific research.

With the assistance of health information technology HIT , major hospitals, along with designated hospitals, can provide services such as remote consultation and prevention and control guidance. This will improve the ability of elementary health institutions to deal with the pandemic situation and relieve the pressure of designated hospitals. Moreover, internet hospitals or internet diagnosis and treatment platforms have their advantages.

Public and standardized platforms should be adopted to gather the service links of registered and approved internet hospitals and internet diagnosis and treatment websites.

This adoption would make it more convenient for people to obtain timely information on pandemic prevention and control, and diagnosis and treatment services. Organizing health care institutions at all levels to provide online compulsory counseling, home medical observation, and guidance for pneumonitis infected by COVID will expand the online medical service space, guide patients to seek medical treatment, and relieve the pressure of offline clinics.

COVID knowledge popularization and prevention of transmission is critical to facilitate timely access to authoritative information, and assist in understanding the diseases and self-protection scientifically. Adopting national integrated online service platforms and official websites of health administration departments at all levels will be helpful to carry out pandemic information inquiries. Social media and other popular platforms should be employed to carry out training on self-protection and for providing COVID diagnosis and treatment education.

This will improve the health care services and personal protection capabilities of primary care institutions. To ensure the smooth operation of the pandemic prevention and control system, an upgrade and transformation of the network should be accelerated.

On the other hand, pandemic monitoring and analysis, virus tracing, patient tracking, personnel flow, and community management are important tasks during the pandemic. Health technologies such as big data, cloud computing, and AI can be applied to develop scientific strategies for precision prevention and control of the pandemic.

Internet platforms can help to match the supply and demand of medical and pandemic prevention materials precisely.

In this way, coordinated deployment and recycling management can be achieved. Information technology enterprises and medical research institutions should work jointly to tackle key problems, accelerate the detection and diagnosis of COVID infection, and conduct research and development of new vaccines. As nCoV has the characteristics of strong transmission and weak lethality, the large-scale increase of infected people may drag down the medical system, so the pandemic prevention and control needs to track and manage the health status of residents and isolate suspected patients.

For instance, data from social media, contact tracing, surveys, etc [ 13 ] could be applied to various machine learning or deep learning models to predict the course of COVID and potential reappearances [ 11 ]. After the outbreak of COVID, the false negative outcome of the kit test increased the difficulty of diagnosis. AI has become a powerful supplement to kit detection.

The increasingly mature AI medical imaging technology [ 14 ], through tagging a large number of medical image samples and applying them to the algorithms for training, learning, and understanding, could effectively assist doctors in decision making.

Furthermore, AI is also on the frontlines of the pandemic. For instance, intelligent robots are collections of integrated multi-sensor fusion, path planning, robot vision, intelligent control, and human-computer interface technology.

They can provide diverse services such as disinfection, food delivery, and medicine delivery. In the situation of scarce protective clothing, the pressure on the frontline health care workers to diagnose and treat can be relieved to a certain extent, and the chance of cross-infection can be reduced.

Telecommuting has been widely used in industries and businesses by replacing traditional commuting with digital technologies [ 15 , 16 ]. In the health care domain, telemedicine has been leveraging telecommunications technologies to make use of HIT and medical information such as video imaging, thus, allowing health care providers to work remotely [ 17 , 18 ]. Telehealth has been interchangeably used with telemedicine [ 19 , 20 ], but as an umbrella term, telehealth incorporates the functions of telemedicine and a variety of nonclinical services like tele-pharmacy and tele-nursing [ 21 ].

The emergence of telehealth in the coronavirus pandemic dates back to SARS in [ 22 ]. However, due to the network quality and technical level at that time, telehealth was limited to simple online or telephone consultation, which was relatively elementary.

Relying on the rapid development of the telecommunication technologies, video imaging, 5G, and other technologies in recent years, telehealth has developed rapidly. At present, the scenarios of remote expert consultation and remote medical education have been widely applied. Telehealth can solve the problem of unbalanced development of medical resources among regions.

Through the internet, experts can organize remote consultation in remote areas and resource-deficient areas. Textbox 1 presents two basic models of telehealth. Telehealth has brought the benefits of high-quality medical resources from superior hospitals to the community-level health institutions, and it has greatly improved health quality, efficacy, efficiency, and saved expenses.

Remote diagnosis through internet technology and big data enables patients to perform imaging and electrocardiogram examinations at township-level hospitals, and doctors at grassroots hospitals can transmit information to their superiors via the internet. The regional diagnosis center and experts will issue a timely diagnosis report, which is convenient for doctors at the elementary hospital to provide patients with targeted treatment.

During the COVID pandemic, telehealth systems can assist and support health care professionals to conduct remote consultation so that doctors from different regions can converge together to discuss the diagnosis and treatment of patients [ 23 ].

During the process, patients have interactions through video [ 24 ] or telephone [ 25 ] with health care providers [ 26 ]. The history of symptoms and exposure risk will be obtained through an observational assessment. Based on this information, doctors can make judgments on whether the patient has been infected or needs further testing. Telehealth has also been used to help manage the patients with suspected symptoms of COVID and provide virtual medical services for chronic diseases [ 27 , 28 ].

The image diagnosis system digitizes the results generated by the examination equipment x-ray, ultrasound machine, etc in the medical institution; health care providers can access the electronic health records EHR remotely through the network to realize remote diagnosis. For patients who are critically ill, telehealth intensive care equipment transmits the physiological information and medical parameters to the monitoring center through the telecommunication network, and real-time detection and further analysis can be conducted.

The systems can realize interoperability of automated health data through HIE [ 5 ] and the sharing of medical information with participating hospitals. Telehealth shortens the distance between doctors and patients, and helps doctors provide timely medical services based on physiological information transmitted from distant places [ 29 ].

Experts from other places remotely access the EHR of patients in the insulation ward, discuss the treatment plan and effect in real time, and give professional opinions. Given the shortage of medical protective material and personal protective equipment PPE , the use of remote consultation reduces the occurrence of on-site diagnoses, which also saves PPE, and reduces the risk of infection spread caused by the transfer of diagnosed patients to the superior hospitals.

If the inviting medical institution finds the invitee on its own, then telehealth can be carried out directly between the medical institutions.

If the inviting medical institution cannot find the invitee by itself, it can publish the requirements on the remote medical service platform established by the inviting medical institution or a third-party institution. The fifth generation mobile networks, or fifth generation wireless systems, is the latest generation of cellular mobile communication technology. The network enables a new kind of network that is designed to connect everything together virtually, including human and machines, objects and devices with high reliability and capacity.

Compared to prior generations, 5G has larger bandwidth, higher rate, lower delay, and larger connection. In a prior generation of wireless systems such as 4G, network bandwidth was limited, only meeting the transmission of small volumes of medical information.

For medical images like computed tomography scan images [ 23 ], real-time remote consultation, and telemedicine meetings, the network must have high transmission speed and low latency. In the medical industry, communication is one of the important factors that impact the development of medical rescue. The high-speed communication capacity of 5G can effectively improve the efficiency of medical emergency rescue and the response ability at public health events.

Remote diagnosis and treatment based on 5G between doctors and patients can be realized through real-time high-definition audio and video connection. Under the current situation of the pandemic, 5G and telehealth can make diagnosis and treatment more efficient, convenient, and safe. The high-speed, large-capacity, and low-latency of the 5G network accelerate achieving the needs of real-time, high efficiency, and stability of the remote consultation.

Health information systems gather clinical data from various locations such as hospitals, community health care organizations, and physician practices. Prior generation of wireless systems could not provide such capacities for HIE [ 32 ] and may cause health care workforce burnout [ 33 ]. With the implementation of 5G, the traditional medical workflow will be improved dramatically, and the unnecessary contact between health care providers and patients may be reduced. The electronic health information system can track the whole process of the medical order, which decreases the risks of medical errors and improves the quality of health care and system management.

In the prevention and control of COVID, it is essential to make full use of 5G communication technology, linking doctors and experts across the country and even around the world; actively taking advantage of online diagnosis and treatment; carrying out online consultation, health science popularization, psychological assistance counseling, and home isolation guidance services such as delivery of medicines for chronic diseases; and enabling patients to receive health care without leaving home, all of which will reduce the risk of being exposed to the virus.

IoT is a novel paradigm of interrelated digital machines, mechanicals, computing devices, and other objects [ 34 , 35 ]. Based on the communication protocols, it combines with the internet to realize the intelligent management of information.

By taking advantage of communication technologies such as networks or the internet and sensors, everything could be linked together to realize the connection between people and objects or objects and objects. At the same time, people-oriented information, remote monitoring and control, and intelligent management are realized.

Remote monitoring [ 36 ] based on IoT is an effective way to assist in achieving real-time, continuous, and long-term monitoring of patient vital signs and transfers the acquired health data or critical alarm information to health care professionals.

Remote monitoring can also achieve real-time data acquisition and analysis of patients in isolated areas. Heart rate, breathing, and other physiological indicators [ 37 ] of patients with COVID can be collected in the isolated zone through smart devices [ 38 ], electrocardiographs, ventilators, and sphygmomanometers; data can then be sent back in real time through Bluetooth [ 37 ] or the network.

Once the system finds abnormal data, it will send an alarm [ 39 ] in real time, and doctors will investigate and judge the situation according to the alarm information. Coronavirus tracking apps on smartphones are playing critical roles as a mobile technology to collect, gather, and share PGHD during the pandemic. Users can check whether they have had contact with patients who are infected by entering personal information. When registering, users are required to enter their name as well as age, zip code, and other relevant information.

Phone numbers are also recorded, so users will be notified once the system identifies contact with patients who are infected. Most trace tracking apps use network or Bluetooth technologies.

Ebook Series: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics

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Health Informatics Journal

Over the decades, the fields of health information systems and informatics have seen rapid growth. Such integrative efforts within the two disciplines have resulted in emerging innovations within the realm of medicine and healthcare. The Handbook of Research on Emerging Perspectives on Healthcare Information Systems and Informatics provides emerging research on the innovative practices of information systems and informatic software in providing efficient, safe, and impactful healthcare systems. While highlighting topics such as conceptual modeling, surveillance data, and decision support systems, this handbook explores the applications and advancements in technological adoption and application of information technology in health institutions.

Published on Authors of this article:. It is a critical and important task to take thorough efforts to prevent and control the pandemic. Compared with severe acute respiratory syndrome and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, COVID spreads more rapidly owing to increased globalization, a longer incubation period, and unobvious symptoms.

International health informatics is driven by developments in biomedical technologies and medical informatics research that are advancing in parallel and form one integrated world of information and communication media and result in massive amounts of health data. These components include genomics and precision medicine, machine learning, translational informatics, intelligent systems for clinicians and patients, mobile health applications, data-driven telecommunication and rehabilitative technology, sensors, intelligent home technology, EHR and patient-controlled data, and Internet of Things. Studies in Health Technology and Informatics HTI series was started in in collaboration with EU programmes that preceded the Horizon to promote biomedical and health informatics research.

Introduction: Forecasting Informatics Competencies for Nurses in the Future of Connected Health.

Health informatics

Since the original Institute of Medicine IOM report was published there has been an accelerated development and adoption of health information technology with varying degrees of evidence about the impact of health information technology on patient safety. This article is intended to review the current available scientific evidence on the impact of different health information technologies on improving patient safety outcomes. There should be no doubt that health information technology is an important tool for improving healthcare quality and safety. Healthcare organizations need to be selective in which technology to invest in, as literature shows that some technologies have limited evidence in improving patient safety outcomes. Patient safety is a subset of healthcare and is defined as the avoidance, prevention, and amelioration of adverse outcomes or injuries stemming from the processes of health care. Health information technology includes various technologies that span from simple charting, to more advanced decision support and integration with medical technology.

Biomedical and health informatics applies principles of computer and information science to the advancement of life sciences research, health professions education, public health, and patient care. This multidisciplinary and integrative field focuses on health information technologies HIT , and involves the computer, cognitive, and social sciences. Informatics is the science of how to use data, information and knowledge to improve human health and the delivery of health care services. Health IT enables advancements in health care by providing the tools with which to set knowledge in motion. Biomedical and health informatics has developed its own areas of emphasis and approaches that sets it apart from other professions and disciplines Biomedical informatics BMI is the interdisciplinary, scientific field that studies and pursues the effective uses of biomedical data, information, and knowledge for scientific inquiry, problem solving and decision making, motivated by efforts to improve human health.

Но технология не стоит на месте. Производители программного обеспечения исходят из того, что рано или поздно появятся компьютеры типа ТРАНСТЕКСТА. Технология развивается в геометрической профессии, и рано или поздно алгоритмы, которыми пользуется общество, перестанут быть надежными. Понадобятся лучшие алгоритмы, чтобы противостоять компьютерам завтрашнего дня.

Может быть, ключ связан с количеством человеческих жертв, оценочной суммой нанесенного ущерба в долларах… - Она замолчала, снова вчитываясь в текст.  - Слово разница особенно важно. Главная разница между Хиросимой и Нагасаки. По-видимому, Танкадо считал, что два эти события чем-то различались между .

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Roxanne P.

PDF | Proceedings of MIE | Find, read and cite all the research you need on ResearchGate. Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, vol.

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Camille C.

PDF | We present the detailed planning and execution of the Insight Toolkit (ITK), an application programmers interface (API) for the segmentation and | Find.

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Tiotheopaili

International health informatics is driven by developments in biomedical technologies and medical informatics research that are advancing in parallel and form.

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