Jane Addams Democracy And Social Ethics Pdf
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- Soundings: An Interdisciplinary Journal
- Jane Addams' Theory of Democracy and Social Ethics: Incorporating a Feminist Perspective
- Femmes de conscience
- Jane Addams
This article examines how conditions in turn-of-the-century Chicago seemed inimical to uniting progressive policies and democratic politics, and shows how Jane Addams was unusual for her era in her simultaneous commitment to progressivism and democracy. In Democracy and Social Ethics and Twenty Years at Hull-House , Addams argues that humanity's ethical values must evolve in response to the new urban conditions emerging in the twentieth century. This article identifies various philosophical conflicts with which Addams had to deal in her attempt to reconcile democracy and progressivism, and shows how her experiences at Hull-House structured her responses to those philosophical oppositions. The three oppositions that Addams dealt with are the distinction between private or individual reform and public reform, the ethical gulf between abstract ethics i. Project MUSE promotes the creation and dissemination of essential humanities and social science resources through collaboration with libraries, publishers, and scholars worldwide.
Soundings: An Interdisciplinary Journal
She was an important leader in the history of social work and women's suffrage in the United States and advocated for world peace. In , Addams was awarded an honorary master of arts degree from Yale University , becoming the first woman to receive an honorary degree from the school.
In , she became the first American woman to be awarded the Nobel Peace Prize , and is recognized as the founder of the social work profession in the United States. In the Progressive Era , when presidents such as Theodore Roosevelt and Woodrow Wilson identified themselves as reformers and social activists, Addams was one of the most prominent reformers. In her essay "Utilization of Women in City Government," Addams noted the connection between the workings of government and the household, stating that many departments of government, such as sanitation and the schooling of children, could be traced back to traditional women's roles in the private sphere.
Thus, these were matters of which women would have more knowledge than men, so women needed the vote to best voice their opinions.
Addams became a role model for middle-class women who volunteered to uplift their communities. Born in Cedarville, Illinois ,  Jane Addams was the youngest of eight children born into a prosperous northern Illinois family of English-American descent which traced back to colonial Pennsylvania. Thereafter Addams was cared for mostly by her older sisters. Addams spent her childhood playing outdoors, reading indoors, and attending Sunday school. When she was four she contracted tuberculosis of the spine, known as Potts's disease , which caused a curvature in her spine and lifelong health problems.
This made it complicated as a child to function with the other children, considering she had a limp and could not run as well.
Addams adored her father, John H. Addams , when she was a child, as she made clear in the stories of her memoir, Twenty Years at Hull House He kept a letter from Lincoln in his desk, and Addams loved to look at it as a child. He remarried in when Addams was eight years old. His second wife was Anna Hosteler Haldeman, the widow of a miller in Freeport. During her childhood, Addams had big dreams of doing something useful in the world. As a voracious reader, she became interested in the poor from her reading of Dickens.
Inspired by her mother's kindness to the Cedarville poor, she decided to become a doctor so that she could live and work among the poor. It was a vague idea nurtured by literary fiction. Addams's father encouraged her to pursue higher education but close to home. She was eager to attend the new college for women, Smith College in Massachusetts; but her father required her to attend nearby Rockford Female Seminary now Rockford University , in Rockford, Illinois. That summer, her father died unexpectedly from a sudden case of appendicitis.
That fall, Addams, her sister Alice, Alice's husband Harry, and their stepmother, Anna Haldeman Addams, moved to Philadelphia so that the three young people could pursue medical educations. Harry was already trained in medicine and did further studies at the University of Pennsylvania. Jane and Alice completed their first year of medical school at the Woman's Medical College of Philadelphia,  but Jane's health problems, a spinal operation  and a nervous breakdown prevented her from completing the degree.
She was filled with sadness at her failure. Her stepmother Anna was also ill, so the entire family canceled their plans to stay two years and returned to Cedarville. The following fall her brother-in-law Harry performed surgery on her back, to straighten it. He then advised that she not pursue studies but, instead, travel. In August , she set off for a two-year tour of Europe with her stepmother, traveling some of the time with friends and family who joined them.
Addams decided that she did not have to become a doctor to be able to help the poor. Upon her return home in June , she lived with her stepmother in Cedarville and spent winters with her in Baltimore. Addams, still filled with vague ambition, sank into depression, unsure of her future and feeling useless leading the conventional life expected of a well-to-do young woman.
She wrote long letters to her friend from Rockford Seminary, Ellen Gates Starr , mostly about Christianity and books but sometimes about her despair. Linn also wrote books and newspaper articles. Meanwhile, Addams gathered inspiration from what she read. Fascinated by the early Christians and Tolstoy 's book My Religion , she was baptized a Christian in the Cedarville Presbyterian Church, in the summer of Yet she felt confused about her role as a woman.
John Stuart Mill 's The Subjection of Women made her question the social pressures on a woman to marry and devote her life to family. In the summer of , Addams read in a magazine about the new idea of starting a settlement house.
She decided to visit the world's first, Toynbee Hall , in London. She and several friends, including Ellen Gates Starr , traveled in Europe from December through the summer of After watching a bullfight in Madrid , fascinated by what she saw as an exotic tradition, Addams condemned this fascination and her inability to feel outraged at the suffering of the horses and bulls. At first, Addams told no one about her dream to start a settlement house; but, she felt increasingly guilty for not acting on her dream.
Starr loved the idea and agreed to join Addams in starting a settlement house. Addams and another friend traveled to London without Starr, who was busy. She described it as "a community of University men who live there, have their recreation clubs and society all among the poor people, yet, in the same style in which they would live in their own circle.
It is so free of 'professional doing good,' so unaffectedly sincere and so productive of good results in its classes and libraries seems perfectly ideal. The settlement house as Addams discovered was a space within which unexpected cultural connections could be made and where the narrow boundaries of culture, class, and education could be expanded.
They doubled as community arts centers and social service facilities. They laid the foundations for American civil society, a neutral space within which different communities and ideologies could learn from each other and seek common grounds for collective action. The role of the settlement house was an "unending effort to make culture and 'the issue of things' go together. The run-down mansion had been built by Charles Hull in and needed repairs and upgrading.
Addams at first paid for all of the capital expenses repairing the roof of the porch, repainting the rooms, buying furniture and most of the operating costs. However gifts from individuals supported the House beginning in its first year and Addams was able to reduce the proportion of her contributions, although the annual budget grew rapidly.
A number of wealthy women became important long-term donors to the House, including Helen Culver , who managed her first cousin Charles Hull's estate, and who eventually allowed the contributors to use the house rent-free. Addams and Starr were the first two occupants of the house, which would later become the residence of about 25 women.
At its height,  Hull House was visited each week by some 2, people. The Hull House was a center for research, empirical analysis, study, and debate, as well as a pragmatic center for living in and establishing good relations with the neighborhood. Among the aims of Hull House was to give privileged, educated young people contact with the real life of the majority of the population.
The core Hull House residents were well-educated women bound together by their commitment to labour unions, the National Consumers League and the suffrage movement. Harriett Alleyne Rice joined Hull House to provide medical treatment for poor families. In addition to making available social services and cultural events for the largely immigrant population of the neighborhood, Hull House afforded an opportunity for young social workers to acquire training.
Eventually, Hull House became a building settlement complex, which included a playground and a summer camp known as Bowen Country Club. The art program at Hull House allowed Addams to challenge the system of industrialized education, which "fitted" the individual to a specific job or position.
She wanted the house to provide a space, time and tools to encourage people to think independently.
She saw art as the key to unlocking the diversity of the city through collective interaction, mutual self-discovery, recreation and the imagination. Art was integral to her vision of community, disrupting fixed ideas and stimulating the diversity and interaction on which a healthy society depends, based on a continual rewriting of cultural identities through variation and interculturalism. With funding from Edward Butler, Addams opened an art exhibition and studio space as one of the first additions to Hull House.
On the first floor of the new addition there was a branch of the Chicago Public Library, and the second was the Butler Art Gallery, which featured recreations of famous artwork as well as the work of local artists. Studio space within the art gallery provided both Hull House residents and the entire community with the opportunity to take art classes or to come in and hone their craft whenever they liked. As Hull House grew, and the relationship with the neighborhood deepened, that opportunity became less of a comfort to the poor and more of an outlet of expression and exchange of different cultures and diverse communities.
Art and culture was becoming a bigger and more important part of the lives of immigrants within the 19th ward, and soon children caught on to the trend. These working-class children were offered instruction in all forms and levels of art. Places such as the Butler Art Gallery or the Bowen Country Club often hosted these classes, but more informal lessons would often be taught outdoors. The CPSAS provided public schools with reproductions of world-renowned pieces of art, hired artists to teach children how to create art, and also took the students on field trips to Chicago's many art museums.
The Hull House neighborhood was a mix of European ethnic groups that had immigrated to Chicago around the start of the 20th century. That mix was the ground where Hull House's inner social and philanthropic elitists tested their theories and challenged the establishment.
Only Italians continued as an intact and thriving community through the Great Depression, World War II, and well beyond the ultimate demise of Hull House proper in Hull House became America's best known settlement house.
Addams used it to generate system-directed change, on the principle that to keep families safe, community and societal conditions had to be improved. Starr and Addams developed three "ethical principles" for social settlements: "to teach by example, to practice cooperation, and to practice social democracy, that is, egalitarian, or democratic, social relations across class lines.
In the s Julia Lathrop , Florence Kelley , and other residents of the house made it a world center of social reform activity. Hull House used the latest methodology pioneering in statistical mapping to study overcrowding, truancy, typhoid fever, cocaine, children's reading, newsboys, infant mortality, and midwifery. Starting with efforts to improve the immediate neighborhood, the Hull House group became involved in city- and statewide campaigns for better housing, improvements in public welfare, stricter child-labor laws, and protection of working women.
Addams brought in prominent visitors from around the world, and had close links with leading Chicago intellectuals and philanthropists.
In , she helped start the new Progressive Party and supported the presidential campaign of Theodore Roosevelt. Although she sympathized with feminists, socialists, and pacifists, Addams refused to be labeled.
This refusal was pragmatic rather than ideological. Hull House stressed the importance of the role of children in the Americanization process of new immigrants. In keeping with this philosophy which also fostered the play movement and the research and service fields of leisure, youth, and human services. Addams argued in The Spirit of Youth and the City Streets that play and recreation programs are needed because cities are destroying the spirit of youth.
Hull-House featured multiple programs in art and drama, kindergarten classes, boys' and girls' clubs, language classes, reading groups, college extension courses, along with public baths, a gymnasium, a labor museum and playground, all within a free-speech atmosphere.
They were all designed to foster democratic cooperation and collective action and downplay individualism. She helped pass the first model tenement code and the first factory laws. JPA provided the first probation officers for the first Juvenile Court in the United States until this became a government function. From until the s, JPA engaged in many studies examining such subjects as racism, child labor and exploitation, drug abuse and prostitution in Chicago and their effects on child development.
Jane Addams' Theory of Democracy and Social Ethics: Incorporating a Feminist Perspective
Access options available:. The Journal of Speculative Philosophy Jane Addams. Introduction by Charlene Haddock Seigfried. Urbana: University of Illinois Press,
Women might wield revolutionary power by transcending gender through the synthesis of intuition inherently female and reason traditionally but not inherently male. Davis in American Heroine argues that her role of social sage and saint was a conscious construction, arising out of her psychological insecurity. She began publishing articles in popular magazines and scholarly journals in the s. In , she and Florence Kelley edited Hull-House Maps and Papers , a social-scientific study of the ethnicity and income of neighborhood residents. The fact that the book sold fewer than copies may have convinced Addams that she needed to find a different mode of inquiry and analysis if she wanted to reach a larger audience. It was in Democracy and Social Ethics , published in , that she found a dramatic mode of presentation and established the authority of her public voice. Yet revolutionary in the extreme.
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Femmes de conscience
She was an important leader in the history of social work and women's suffrage in the United States and advocated for world peace. In , Addams was awarded an honorary master of arts degree from Yale University , becoming the first woman to receive an honorary degree from the school. In , she became the first American woman to be awarded the Nobel Peace Prize , and is recognized as the founder of the social work profession in the United States.
Certain forms of personal righteousness have become to a majority of the. It is as easy for most of us to keep from stealing our dinners as it is to digest them, and there is quite as much voluntary morality involved in one process as in the other. To steal would be for us to fall sadly below the standard of habit and expectation which makes virtue easy.
Jane Addams was a social activist, Progressive reformer, and author of many books of social criticism. She was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in Du kanske gillar. Spara som favorit.
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