He Ne Laser Construction And Working Pdf
File Name: he ne laser construction and working .zip
He-Ne stands for Helium-Neon. The He-Ne laser active medium consists of two gases which do not interact form a molecule.
- Helium (he) Neon (ne) laser working animation
- Explain Construction and Working of He:Ne Laser with Neat Label Diagram. - Applied Physics 2
- Laser Technology
Helium (he) Neon (ne) laser working animation
Ne atoms act as active centers and responsible for the laser action, while He atoms are used to help in the excitation process.
The length of the quartz tube is about 50 cm and the diameter is about 1 cm. To construct the optical resonator cavity, two parallel mirrors are placed at the ends of the quartz tube one of them is partly transparent while the other is fully reflecting. The spacing between the mirrors is adjusted such that it should be equal to the integral multiple of half-wavelengths of the laser light.
The pumping is done through electrical discharge by using electrodes that are connected to a high frequency alternating current source. It is a four energy level laser system. The electrons produced from electric discharge collide with He and Ne atom and excite them to the higher energy levels He2 and Ne4 at These two states are metastable so the atoms may stay there for a longer time.
They are very close to each other, thus some of the He atoms at He2 state may transfer their energy to ground-state Ne atoms through collisions and excite them to the higher energy level Ne4. The kinetic energy of atoms provides the additional energy of 0. Thus, He atoms help to achieve population inversion in Ne atoms. Now some of the Ne atoms will decay spontaneously to the lower state Ne3 at The photons that are moving parallel to the axis of the tube will reflect back and forth by the end mirrors of the rod and stimulate other excited Ne atoms to radiate another photon with the same phase.
Thus, due to successive reflections of these photons at the ends of the tube, the number of photons multiplies. The atoms at state Ne3 are unstable and decay spontaneously to a lower state Ne2 and finally, they come to the ground state by losing their remaining energy through collision with the tube walls. He-Ne laser operates continuously. Your email address will not be published. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Download Download.
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Explain Construction and Working of He:Ne Laser with Neat Label Diagram. - Applied Physics 2
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Helium-Neon laser is a type of gas laser in which a mixture of helium and neon gas is used as a gain medium. Helium-Neon laser is also known as He-Ne laser. A gas laser is a type of laser in which a mixture of gas is used as the active medium or laser medium. Gas lasers are the most widely used lasers. Gas lasers range from the low power helium-neon lasers to the very high power carbon dioxide lasers.
The best-known and most widely used HeNe laser operates at a wavelength of A o , in the red part of the visible spectrum. The tube where the lasing action takes place consists of a glass envelop with a narrow capillary tube through the center. The capillary tube is designed to direct the electrical discharge through its small bore to produce very high current densities in the gas. The outer coupler and the HR high reflective mirror are located at the opposite ends of the plasma tube.
У вас есть кольцо. - Проваливайте! - зарычал немец и начал закрывать дверь. Беккер не раздумывая просунул ногу в щель и открыл дверь.
- Вот откуда шрам. - Весьма сомнительно, чтобы Танкадо связал свои ощущения с выстрелом. - И все же он отдал кольцо, - сказал Фонтейн.
Члены группы будут уверены, что производят облаву на наркодельцов. Стратмор, несомненно, постарается проверить все лично и найти пароль из шестидесяти четырех знаков. Затем он его уничтожит, и Цифровая крепость навсегда исчезнет из Интернета. - Действуй своим маячком очень осторожно, - сказал Стратмор. - Если Северная Дакота заподозрит, что мы его ищем, он начнет паниковать и исчезнет вместе с паролем, так что никакая штурмовая группа до него не доберется.
Успокойся, Сьюзан, - сказал Стратмор, положив руку ей на плечо. Это умиротворяющее прикосновение вывело Сьюзан из оцепенения.