structure and function of immune system pdf

Structure And Function Of Immune System Pdf

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The role of the immune system — a collection of structures and processes within the body — is to protect against disease or other potentially damaging foreign bodies. When functioning properly, the immune system identifies a variety of threats, including viruses, bacteria and parasites, and distinguishes them from the body's own healthy tissue, according to Merck Manuals. Innate immunity is the immune system you're born with, and mainly consists of barriers on and in the body that keep foreign threats out, according to the National Library of Medicine NLM.

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How the immune system works

Immune system , the complex group of defense responses found in humans and other advanced vertebrates that helps repel disease-causing organisms pathogens. Immunity from disease is actually conferred by two cooperative defense systems, called nonspecific, innate immunity and specific, acquired immunity. Nonspecific protective mechanisms repel all microorganisms equally, while the specific immune responses are tailored to particular types of invaders. Both systems work together to thwart organisms from entering and proliferating within the body. These immune mechanisms also help eliminate abnormal cells of the body that can develop into cancer. The following sections provide a detailed explanation of how nonspecific and specific immunity function and how the immune system evolved. For information on how these systems can go awry and give rise to disease, see immune system disorder.

Structure and function of the immune system

The immune system keeps a record of every microbe it has ever defeated, in types of white blood cells B- and T-lymphocytes known as memory cells. This means it can recognise and destroy the microbe quickly if it enters the body again, before it can multiply and make you feel sick. Some infections, like the flu and the common cold, have to be fought many times because so many different viruses or strains of the same type of virus can cause these illnesses. Catching a cold or flu from one virus does not give you immunity against the others. White blood cells move through blood and tissue throughout your body, looking for foreign invaders microbes such as bacteria, viruses, parasites and fungi. When they find them, they launch an immune attack. As well as the immune system, the body has several other ways to defend itself against microbes, including:.

Immune system explained

Our immune system is essential for our survival. Without an immune system, our bodies would be open to attack from bacteria, viruses, parasites, and more. It is our immune system that keeps us healthy as we drift through a sea of pathogens.

This second article in a six-part series explains the primary and secondary lymphoid organs and their clinical significance and structure. This article is the second in a six-part series about the lymphatic system. It discusses the role of the lymphoid organs, which is to develop and provide immunity for the body. The primary lymphoid organs are the red bone marrow, in which blood and immune cells are produced, and the thymus, where T-lymphocytes mature.

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The Immune System — A Short Introduction to its Structure and Function

The immune system includes primary lymphoid organs, secondary lymphatic tissues and various cells in the innate and adaptive immune systems. The key primary lymphoid organs of the immune system include the thymus and bone marrow, as well as secondary lymphatic tissues including spleen, tonsils, lymph vessels, lymph nodes, adenoids, skin, and liver. The thymus is largest and most active during the neonatal and pre-adolescent periods of development. By the early teens, the thymus begins to atrophy and thymic stroma is replaced by adipose tissue. Nevertheless, residual T-lymphopoiesis continues throughout adult life. Bone marrow is the flexible tissue found in the interior of bones.

Immunopharmacology pp Cite as. In a wider sense it also includes the macrophages, which have important antigen-presenting functions and are, in addition, effector cells, and the granulocytes, which are mediator and also effector cells. In terms of cell mass, the lymphocytes alone are equivalent to the liver or the central nervous system and therefore occupy as much space as these organ systems. Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF. Skip to main content.

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PDF | The major function of the immune system is to protect the host from environmental agents such as microbes or chemicals, thereby.


Immune System: Diseases, Disorders & Function

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Claire C.

The immune system is composed of a variety of different cell types and proteins.

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