Alfred North Whitehead Process And Reality Pdf
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- File:Whitehead Alfred North Process and Reality corr ed 1978.pdf
- Alfred North Whitehead - Process & Reality
- Quantum Mechanics and the Philosophy of Alfred North Whitehead
File:Whitehead Alfred North Process and Reality corr ed 1978.pdf
Alfred North Whitehead — was a British mathematician and philosopher best known for his work in mathematical logic and the philosophy of science. In collaboration with Bertrand Russell, he co-authored the landmark three-volume Principia Mathematica , , Later, he was instrumental in pioneering the approach to metaphysics now known as process philosophy. The first corresponds roughly to his time at Cambridge from to It was during these years that he worked primarily on issues in mathematics and logic.
It was also during this time that he collaborated with Russell. The second main period, from to , corresponds roughly to his time at London.
During these years Whitehead concentrated mainly on issues in physics, the philosophy of science, and the philosophy of education. The third main period corresponds roughly to his time at Harvard from onward. It was during this time that he worked primarily on issues in metaphysics. The son of an Anglican clergyman, Whitehead graduated from Cambridge in and was elected a Fellow of Trinity College that same year.
His marriage to Evelyn Wade six years later was largely a happy one and together they had a daughter Jessie and two sons North and Eric. After moving to London, Whitehead served as president of the Aristotelian Society from to After moving to Harvard, he was elected to the British Academy in His moves to both London and Harvard were prompted in part by institutional regulations requiring mandatory retirement, although his resignation from Cambridge was also done partly in protest over how the University had chosen to discipline Andrew Forsyth, a friend and colleague whose affair with a married woman had become something of a local scandal.
In addition to Russell, Whitehead influenced many other students who became equally or more famous than their teacher, examiner or supervisor himself. For example: mathematicians G. Hardy and J. Whitehead did not, however, inspire any school of thought during his lifetime, and most of his students distanced themselves from parts of his teachings that they considered anachronistic. As a result, there is no nachlass , except for papers retained by his colleagues and correspondents.
From knowledge gained through the years of the personalities who in our day have affected American university life, I have for some time been convinced that no single figure has had such a pervasive influence as the late Professor Alfred North Whitehead.
New York Times, January 8, A critical edition of his work is currently in the process of being prepared. A first volume, containing student notes of lectures given by Whitehead at Harvard in the academic year —, has already been published by Edinburgh University Press in , and more volumes are on their way.
Whitehead began his academic career at Trinity College, Cambridge where, starting in , he taught for a quarter of a century. In , Russell arrived as a student and during the s the two men came into regular contact with one another. According to Russell,.
Whitehead was extraordinarily perfect as a teacher. He took a personal interest in those with whom he had to deal and knew both their strong and their weak points. He would elicit from a pupil the best of which a pupil was capable. He was never repressive, or sarcastic, or superior, or any of the things that inferior teachers like to be.
I think that in all the abler young men with whom he came in contact he inspired, as he did in me, a very real and lasting affection. By the early s, both Whitehead and Russell had completed books on the foundations of mathematics. According to Whitehead, they initially expected the research to take about a year to complete.
In the end, they worked together on the project for a decade. According to Whitehead—inspired by Hermann Grassmann—mathematics is the study of pattern:.
After that, instead of only being a driving force behind the scenes, Whitehead became the public co-author of Russell of the actual and rigorous reconstruction of mathematics from logic. Russell often presented this reconstruction—giving rise to the publication of the three Principia Mathematica volumes—as the reduction of mathematics to logic, both qua definitions and qua proofs. Frege adhered to a radical universalism, and wanted the mathematical content to be entirely determined from within the logical system.
Contrary to Frege, Whitehead and Russell tempered their urge for universalism to take into account the topic-specificity of the various mathematical branches, and as a working mathematician, Whitehead was well positioned to compare the pre-logicized mathematics with its reconstruction in the logical system. For Russell, the logicism project originated from the dream of a rock-solid mathematics, no longer governed by Kantian intuition, but by logical rigor.
He actually came up with several theories, but retained the ramified theory of types in Principia Mathematica. None of this patchwork could ultimately satisfy Russell.
Whitehead originally conceived of the logicism project as an improvement upon his algebraic project. It entailed a generalization from the embodiment of absolutely abstract patterns by means of algebraic forms of variables to their embodiment by means of propositional functions of real variables.
Desmet a. Griffin et al. Following the completion of Principia, Whitehead and Russell began to go their separate ways cf. Nevertheless, the two remained on relatively good terms for the rest of their lives. To his credit, Russell comments in his Autobiography that when it came to their political differences, Whitehead.
Even with the publication of its three volumes, Principia Mathematica was incomplete. For example, the logical reconstruction of the various branches of geometry still needed to be completed and published. However, this volume never saw the light of day.
What Whitehead did publish were his repeated attempts to logically reconstruct the geometry of space and time, hence extending the logicism project from pure mathematics to applied mathematics or, put differently, from mathematics to physics—an extension which Russell greeted with enthusiasm and saw as an important step in the deployment of his new philosophical method of logical analysis. When Whitehead logicized the space of physics, his starting point was our intuition of spatial volumes and of how one volume may contain or extend over another, giving rise to the mereo logical relation of containment or extension in the class of volumes, and to the concept of converging series of volumes—think, for example, of a series of Russian dolls, one contained in the other, but idealized to ever smaller dolls.
Whitehead made all this rigorous and then, crudely put, defined the points from which to further construct the geometry of space. Indeed, Whitehead defined points as equivalence classes of converging series of volumes, and Cantor defined real numbers as equivalence classes of converging series of rational numbers. A first step to go from space to space-time was the replacement of our intuition of spatial volumes with our intuition of spatio-temporal regions or events as the basis of the construction so that, for example, a point of space-time could be defined as an equivalence class of converging spatio-temporal regions.
However, whereas Whitehead had constructed the Euclidean distance based on our intuition of cases of spatial congruence for example, of two parallel straight line segments being equally long , he now struggled to construct the Minkowskian metric in terms of a concept of spatio-temporal congruence, based on a kind of merger of our intuition of cases of spatial congruence and our intuition of cases of temporal congruence for example, of two candles taking equally long to burn out.
So, as a second step, Whitehead introduced a second relation in the class of spatio-temporal regions next to the relation of extension, namely, the relation of cogredience, based on our intuition of rest or motion.
When Whitehead equated k with c 2 the square of the speed of light his metric became equal to the Minkowskian metric. Einstein explained the gravitational motion of a free mass-particle in the neighborhood of a heavy mass as due to the curvature of space-time caused by this mass.
According to Whitehead, the theoretical concept of a contingently curved space-time does not cohere with our measurement practices; they are based on the essential uniformity of the texture of our spatial and temporal intuition. In , Whitehead had the opportunity to discuss matters with Einstein himself.
And finally, in , Whitehead published a book with a more detailed account of his alternative theory of gravitation ATG — The Principle of Relativity. Hence, Whitehead developed his ATG in close analogy with the theory of electrodynamics. Whitehead explained the gravitational motion of a free mass-particle as due to a field action determined by retarded wave-potentials propagating in a uniform space-time from the source masses to the free mass-particle.
Also as shown by Eddington in and J. Moreover as shown by R. For example as shown by G. Clark in the two theories lead to different predictions with respect to the motion of double stars. First, that theory choice is solely based on empirical facts. Clearly, next to facts, values—especially aesthetic values—are at play as well.
Second, that the history of science is a succession of victories over the army of our misleading intuitions, each success of science must be interpreted as a defeat of intuition, and a truth cannot be scientific unless it hurts human intuition.
Surely, we can be scientific without taming the authority of our intuition and without engaging in the disastrous race to disenchant nature and humankind. Palter , Von Ranke , Herstein and Desmet , b, and c. Instead Whitehead promotes i a radical empiricist methodology, which relies on our perception, not only of sense data colors, sounds, smells, etc. Whitehead wrote:.
Sense-perception, for all its practical importance, is very superficial in its disclosure of the nature of things. Sense-perception does not provide the data in terms of which we interpret it.
In itself such a material is senseless, valueless, purposeless. It just does what it does do, following a fixed routine imposed by external relations which do not spring from the nature of its being. But the forces which he introduced left Nature still without meaning or value. In the essence of a material body—in its mass, motion, and shape—there was no reason for the law of gravitation. There is merely a formula for succession.
But there is an absence of understandable causation for that formula for that succession. One is that sense-perception omits any discrimination of the fundamental activities within Nature. They are right as far as they go. Indeed, we cannot say of an electromagnetic event that it is. The fundamental concepts are activity and process. There are no essentially self-contained activities within limited regions. All things change, the activities and their interrelations.
It has thus swept away space and matter, and has substituted the study of the internal relations within a complex state of activity. According to Whitehead,. In fact, science conceived as restricting itself to the sensationalist methodology can find neither efficient nor final causality. Contrary to Hume, Whitehead held that it is untrue to state that our perception, in which sense perception is only one factor, discloses no causal relatedness.
Inspired by the radical empiricism of William James and Henri Bergson, Whitehead gave a new analysis of perception. He added:. In some sense or other … each happening is a factor in the nature of every other happening.
Alfred North Whitehead - Process & Reality
Alfred North Whitehead — was a British mathematician and philosopher best known for his work in mathematical logic and the philosophy of science. In collaboration with Bertrand Russell, he co-authored the landmark three-volume Principia Mathematica , , Later, he was instrumental in pioneering the approach to metaphysics now known as process philosophy. The first corresponds roughly to his time at Cambridge from to It was during these years that he worked primarily on issues in mathematics and logic. It was also during this time that he collaborated with Russell.
Panpsychism recognizes that everything in the universe has a physical dimension and a mental dimension. Another way to put this is that some form of consciousness goes all the way down to the quantum dimension of the universe and all the way up to the galactic dimension of the universe. Each of us humans has a physical dimension and a mental dimension and they interact intimately. I can decide to keep on typing or go get a drink of water. Once I make that decision, my body carries it out, in this case keeping on typing. My mind gets kinesthetic awareness from my body and tells my body what to do. My mind and my body are continually intimately interacting with each other.
Whitehead, Alfred North, Process and reality. (Gifford lectures ; 28). Includes index. 1. Cosmology--Addresses, essays, lectures. 2. Science
Quantum Mechanics and the Philosophy of Alfred North Whitehead
Home Issues II-1 Symposia. Whitehead himself regarded his philosophy as the philosophy of organism. His organic philosophy is understood through various types of process that occur in the becoming of actual organic entities in relationship with one another. The mind-body problem is solved in the philosophy of organism, and a ground for understanding the lived body is provided. In what Whitehead termed his reformed subjectivist doctrine, he begins as Descartes did with the analysis of an act of experience, and then searches for an adequate model of the self and its experience.
Process and Reality is a book by Alfred North Whitehead , in which the author propounds a philosophy of organism, also called process philosophy. The book, published in , is a revision of the Gifford Lectures he gave in — We diverge from Descartes by holding that what he has described as primary attributes of physical bodies, are really the forms of internal relationships between actual occasions.
Для Танкадо это детская забава, - бросил Джабба. - Нашим главным стражем была система Сквозь строй, а Стратмор вышвырнул ее в мусорную корзину. - Это объявление войны, - прошептал Фонтейн срывающимся голосом. Джабба покачал головой: - Лично я сомневаюсь, что Танкадо собирался зайти так. Я думаю, он собирался оставаться поблизости и вовремя все это остановить.
Она присела на решетчатой площадке. - Коммандер. Стратмор даже не повернулся. Он по-прежнему смотрел вниз, словно впав в транс и не отдавая себе отчета в происходящем.
Соши прочитала снова: - …Искусственно произведенный, обогащенный нейтронами изотоп урана с атомным весом 238. - Двести тридцать восемь? - воскликнула Сьюзан. - Разве мы не знаем, что в хиросимской бомбе был другой изотоп урана.
Мидж отвернулась. Фонтейн стоял очень прямо, глядя прямо перед. У Бринкерхоффа был такой вид, словно он вот-вот лишится чувств.
Они уедут, потом остановятся где-нибудь в лесу. У него будет пистолет… От этой мысли у Стратмора свело желудок. Кто знает, что произойдет, прежде чем он решит освободить Сьюзан… если он ее вообще освободит. Я обязан позвонить в службу безопасности, - решил. - Что еще мне остается? - Он представил Хейла на скамье подсудимых, вываливающего все, что ему известно о Цифровой крепости.
К тому же если пароль стандартный, из шестидесяти четырех знаков, то даже при свете дня никто их не прочтет, а если и прочтет, то не запомнит. - И Танкадо отдал это кольцо совершенно незнакомому человеку за мгновение до смерти? - с недоумением спросила Сьюзан. - Почему. Стратмор сощурил .
Я-я…я убью. Клянусь, убью. - Ты не сделаешь ничего подобного! - оборвал его Стратмор. - Этим ты лишь усугубишь свое положе… - Он не договорил и произнес в трубку: - Безопасность.