Compare Business Strategy And Military Strategy Pdf
File Name: compare business strategy and military strategy .zip
A strong military heritage underlies the study of strategic management. Terms such as objectives, mission, strengths, and weaknesses first were formulated to address problems on the battlefield.
No good military officer would undertake even a small-scale attack on a limited objective without a clear concept of his strategy. No seasoned politician would undertake a campaign for a major office without an equally clear concept of his strategy. In the field of business management, however, we frequently find men deploying resources on a […]. In the field of business management, however, we frequently find men deploying resources on a large scale without any clear notion of what their strategy is.
Business vs Military Strategy
Strategic planning is an organization 's process of defining its strategy , or direction, and making decisions on allocating its resources to pursue this strategy. It may also extend to control mechanisms for guiding the implementation of the strategy.
Strategic planning became prominent in corporations during the s and remains an important aspect of strategic management. It is executed by strategic planners or strategists , who involve many parties and research sources in their analysis of the organization and its relationship to the environment in which it competes.
Strategy has many definitions, but generally involves setting strategic goals , determining actions to achieve the goals, and mobilizing resources to execute the actions. A strategy describes how the ends goals will be achieved by the means resources. The senior leadership of an organization is generally tasked with determining strategy.
Strategy can be planned intended or can be observed as a pattern of activity emergent as the organization adapts to its environment or competes. Strategy includes processes of formulation and implementation; strategic planning helps coordinate both. However, strategic planning is analytical in nature i. As such, strategic planning occurs around the strategy formation activity. Strategic planning is a process and thus has inputs, activities, outputs and outcomes.
This process, like all processes, has constraints. It may be formal or informal and is typically iterative, with feedback loops throughout the process.
Some elements of the process may be continuous and others may be executed as discrete projects with a definitive start and end during a period. Strategic planning provides inputs for strategic thinking , which guides the actual strategy formation. Typical strategic planning efforts include the evaluation of the organization's mission and strategic issues to strengthen current practices and determine the need for new programming.
Michael Porter wrote in that formulation of competitive strategy includes consideration of four key elements:. The first two elements relate to factors internal to the company i. Data is gathered from a variety of sources, such as interviews with key executives, review of publicly available documents on the competition or market, primary research e.
This may be part of a competitive intelligence program. Inputs are gathered to help support an understanding of the competitive environment and its opportunities and risks. Other inputs include an understanding of the values of key stakeholders, such as the board, shareholders, and senior management.
These values may be captured in an organization's vision and mission statements. Michael Porter . Strategic planning activities include meetings and other communication among the organization's leaders and personnel to develop a common understanding regarding the competitive environment and what the organization's response to that environment its strategy should be.
A variety of strategic planning tools described in the section below may be completed as part of strategic planning activities. The organization's leaders may have a series of questions they want to be answered in formulating the strategy and gathering inputs, such as:.
The output of strategic planning includes documentation and communication describing the organization's strategy and how it should be implemented, sometimes referred to as the strategic plan.
The strategy may include a diagnosis of the competitive situation, a guiding policy for achieving the organization's goals, and specific action plans to be implemented.
The organization may use a variety of methods of measuring and monitoring progress towards the strategic objectives and measures established, such as a balanced scorecard or strategy map. Companies may also plan their financial statements i.
The term operational budget is often used to describe the expected financial performance of an organization for the upcoming year. Capital budgets very often form the backbone of a strategic plan, especially as it increasingly relates to Information and Communications Technology ICT. Whilst the planning process produces outputs, as described above, strategy implementation or execution of the strategic plan produces Outcomes.
These outcomes will invariably differ from the strategic goals. How close they are to the strategic goals and vision will determine the success or failure of the strategic plan. There will also arise unintended Outcomes, which need to be attended to and understood for strategy development and execution to be a true learning process. A variety of analytical tools and techniques are used in strategic planning.
Such tools include:. Simply extending financial statement projections into the future without consideration of the competitive environment is a form of financial planning or budgeting, not strategic planning. In business, the term "financial plan" is often used to describe the expected financial performance of an organization for future periods.
The term "budget" is used for a financial plan for the upcoming year. A "forecast" is typically a combination of actual performance year-to-date plus expected performance for the remainder of the year, so is generally compared against plan or budget and prior performance. The financial plans accompanying a strategic plan may include 3—5 years of projected performance. The four stages include:. Categories 3 and 4 are strategic planning, while the first two categories are non-strategic or essentially financial planning.
Each stage builds on the previous stages; that is, a stage 4 organization completes activities in all four categories. For Michael C. Sekora, Project Socrates founder in the Reagan White House, during the cold war the economically challenged Soviet Union was able to keep on western military capabilities by using technology-based planning while the U.
Strategic planning has been criticized for attempting to systematize strategic thinking and strategy formation, which Henry Mintzberg argues are inherently creative activities involving synthesis or "connecting the dots" which cannot be systematized.
Mintzberg argues that strategic planning can help coordinate planning efforts and measure progress on strategic goals, but that it occurs "around" the strategy formation process rather than within it. Further, strategic planning functions remote from the "front lines" or contact with the competitive environment i. While much criticism surrounds strategic planning, evidence suggests that it does work. In a recent meta-analysis including data from almost 9, public and private organizations, strategic planning is found to have a positive impact on organizational performance.
Strategic planning is particularly potent in enhancing an organization's capacity to achieve its goals i. However, the study argues that just having a plan is not enough. For strategic planning to work, it needs to include some formality i. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Not to be confused with Strategic thinking. Major dimensions. Major thinkers. Frameworks and tools. The essence of formulating competitive strategy is relating a company to its environment.
Play media. Business strategy mapping Chief strategy officer Decision making software Enterprise planning systems Francis J. Prentice Hall. Washington D. Crown Business. Competitive Strategy. Free Press. The Practice of Management. The Lords of Strategy. Harvard Business Press. Sekora Feb 2, Public Administration Review. Strategic planning tools. Categories : Strategic management Business planning Business terms Strategy.
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Comparing Business and Military Strategy.pdf
Awareness of these forces can help a company stake out a position in its industry that is less vulnerable to attack. The essence of strategy formulation is coping with competition. Yet it is easy to view competition too narrowly and too pessimistically. While one sometimes hears executives complaining to the contrary, intense competition in an industry is neither coincidence nor bad luck. Moreover, in the fight for market share, competition is not manifested only in the other players. Rather, competition in an industry is rooted in its underlying economics, and competitive forces exist that go well beyond the established combatants in a particular industry.
Strategic planning is an organization 's process of defining its strategy , or direction, and making decisions on allocating its resources to pursue this strategy. It may also extend to control mechanisms for guiding the implementation of the strategy. Strategic planning became prominent in corporations during the s and remains an important aspect of strategic management. It is executed by strategic planners or strategists , who involve many parties and research sources in their analysis of the organization and its relationship to the environment in which it competes. Strategy has many definitions, but generally involves setting strategic goals , determining actions to achieve the goals, and mobilizing resources to execute the actions. A strategy describes how the ends goals will be achieved by the means resources. The senior leadership of an organization is generally tasked with determining strategy.
Reactive business strategies are those that respond to some unanticipated event only after it occurs, while proactive strategies are designed to anticipate possible challenges. Because no one can anticipate every possibility, no organization can be proactive in every situation. However, businesses that emphasize proactive strategy are usually more effective at dealing with challenges. The distinction between proactive and reactive approaches is a recognized principle of military strategy, often expressed in the phrase "seize, retain and exploit the initiative.
Сегодня днем. Примерно через час после того, как его получила. Беккер посмотрел на часы - 11. За восемь часов след остыл. Какого черта я здесь делаю.
Дэвид улыбнулся: - Да. Наверное, Испания напомнила мне о том, что по-настоящему важно. - Помогать вскрывать шифры? - Она чмокнула его в щеку. - Как бы там ни было, ты поможешь мне с моей рукописью.
Я не умер.
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Речь идет о нашей поездке. Нам придется ее отложить. - Что-о? - Сьюзан окончательно проснулась. - Прости. Я срочно уезжаю. Вернусь завтра. И уже утром мы сможем поехать.
Роскошная обстановка, как в лучших отелях. Розы, шампанское, широченная кровать с балдахином. Росио нигде не. Дверь, ведущая в ванную, закрыта. - Prostituiert? - Немец бросил боязливый взгляд на дверь в ванную. Он был крупнее, чем ожидал Беккер. Волосатая грудь начиналась сразу под тройным подбородком и выпячивалась ничуть не меньше, чем живот необъятного размера, на котором едва сходился пояс купального халата с фирменным знаком отеля.
Даже если файл Танкадо будет прочитан прямо сейчас, это все равно будет означать, что АНБ идет ко дну. С такими темпами шифровалка сумеет вскрывать не больше двух шифров в сутки. В то время как даже при нынешнем рекорде - сто пятьдесят вскрытых шифров в день - они не успевают расшифровывать всю перехватываемую информацию. - Танкадо звонил мне в прошлом месяце, - сказал Стратмор, прервав размышления Сьюзан. - Танкадо звонил вам? - удивилась .
Пустое пространство зала аэропорта открылось перед Беккером подобно бескрайней пустыне. Ноги несли его с такой быстротой, на какую, казалось ему, он не был способен. Когда он влетел во вращающуюся дверь, прозвучал еще один выстрел. Стеклянная панель обдала его дождем осколков. Дверь повернулась и мгновение спустя выкинула его на асфальт.
Его комментарий отличался бесстрастностью опытного полевого агента: - Эта съемка сделана из мини-автобуса, припаркованного в пятидесяти метрах от места убийства. Танкадо приближается справа, Халохот - между деревьев слева. - У нас почти не осталось времени, - сказал Фонтейн. - Давайте ближе к сути дела.