List Of Countries And Capitals By Continent Pdf Creator
File Name: list of countries and capitals by continent creator.zip
So one of the first things I wanted to memorize was the countries and their capitals organized by continent. And obviously Wikipedia has such a list, but it also includes a ton of extraneous information, and I wanted to be able to print out the list and take it with me to memorize wherever. Anyway, I had a hard time finding such a list, so I went ahead and made my own.
Italy is located in Southern Europe ,   and is also considered part of Western Europe. Italy has a territorial enclave in Switzerland Campione and a maritime exclave in Tunisian waters Lampedusa. With around 60 million inhabitants, Italy is the third-most populous member state of the European Union. Due to its central geographic location in Southern Europe and the Mediterranean , Italy has historically been home to myriad peoples and cultures.
In addition to the various ancient peoples dispersed throughout what is now modern-day Italy, the most predominant being the Indo-European Italic peoples who gave the peninsula its name, beginning from the classical era, Phoenicians and Carthaginians founded colonies mostly in insular Italy ,  Greeks established settlements in the so-called Magna Graecia of Southern Italy , while Etruscans and Celts inhabited central and northern Italy respectively.
An Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom in the 8th century BC, which eventually became a republic with a government of the Senate and the People. The Roman Republic initially conquered and assimilated its neighbours on the Italian peninsula, eventually expanding and conquering parts of Europe , North Africa and Asia.
By the first century BC, the Roman Empire emerged as the dominant power in the Mediterranean Basin and became a leading cultural, political and religious centre , inaugurating the Pax Romana , a period of more than years during which Italy's law , technology , economy , art , and literature developed. During the Early Middle Ages , Italy endured the fall of the Western Roman Empire and barbarian invasions , but by the 11th century numerous rival city-states and maritime republics , mainly in the northern and central regions of Italy, rose to great prosperity through trade, commerce and banking, laying the groundwork for modern capitalism.
Italian culture flourished, producing famous scholars, artists and polymaths. Nevertheless, Italy's commercial and political power significantly waned with the opening of trade routes that bypassed the Mediterranean. By the midth century, rising Italian nationalism and calls for independence from foreign control led to a period of revolutionary political upheaval. After centuries of foreign domination and political division, Italy was almost entirely unified in , establishing the Kingdom of Italy as a great power.
Following the liberation of Italy and the rise of the Italian Resistance , the country abolished their monarchy , established a democratic Republic, enjoyed a prolonged economic boom , and became a highly developed country. Today, Italy is considered to be one of the world's most culturally and economically advanced countries,    with the world's eighth-largest economy by nominal GDP third in the European Union , sixth-largest national wealth and third-largest central bank gold reserve.
It ranks very highly in life expectancy , quality of life,  healthcare ,  and education. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military, cultural and diplomatic affairs; it is both a regional power   and a great power ,   and is ranked the world's eighth most-powerful military. The country has long been a global centre of art , music , literature , philosophy , science and technology , and fashion , and has greatly influenced and contributed to diverse fields including cinema , cuisine , sports , jurisprudence, banking and business.
Hypotheses for the etymology of the name "Italia" are numerous. Lat vitulus "calf", Umb vitlo "calf". According to Antiochus of Syracuse , the term Italy was used by the Greeks to initially refer only to the southern portion of the Bruttium peninsula corresponding to the modern province of Reggio and part of the provinces of Catanzaro and Vibo Valentia in southern Italy.
Nevertheless, by his time the larger concept of Oenotria and "Italy" had become synonymous and the name also applied to most of Lucania as well. According to Strabo 's Geographica , before the expansion of the Roman Republic , the name was used by Greeks to indicate the land between the strait of Messina and the line connecting the gulf of Salerno and gulf of Taranto , corresponding roughly to the current region of Calabria. The Greeks gradually came to apply the name "Italia" to a larger region  In addition to the "Greek Italy" in the south, historians have suggested the existence of an "Etruscan Italy" covering variable areas of central Italy.
The borders of Roman Italy, Italia , are better established. Cato's Origines , the first work of history composed in Latin , described Italy as the entire peninsula south of the Alps.
The northern area of Cisalpine Gaul was occupied by Rome in the s BC and became considered geographically and de facto part of Italy,  but remained politically and de jure separated. It was legally merged into the administrative unit of Italy in 42 BC by the triumvir Octavian as a ratification of Caesar 's unpublished acts Acta Caesaris. Thousands of Paleolithic -era artifacts have been recovered from Monte Poggiolo and dated to around , years before the present, making them the oldest evidence of first hominins habitation in the peninsula.
The main historic peoples of possible non-Indo-European or pre-Indo-European heritage include the Etruscans of central and northern Italy, the Elymians and the Sicani in Sicily, and the prehistoric Sardinians , who gave birth to the Nuragic civilisation.
Other ancient populations being of undetermined language families and of possible non-Indo-European origin include the Rhaetian people and Cammuni , known for their rock carvings in Valcamonica , the largest collections of prehistoric petroglyphs in the world. The first foreign colonizers were the Phoenicians , who initially established colonies and founded various emporiums on the coasts of Sicily and Sardinia. Some of these soon became small urban centres and were developed parallel to the Greek colonies; among the main centres there were the cities of Motya , Zyz modern Palermo , Soluntum in Sicily and Nora , Sulci , and Tharros in Sardinia.
Between the 17th and the 11th centuries BC Mycenaean Greeks established contacts with Italy     and in the 8th and 7th centuries BC a number of Greek colonies were established all along the coast of Sicily and the southern part of the Italian Peninsula, that became known as Magna Graecia. The Greek colonization placed the Italic peoples in contact with democratic government forms and with elevated artistic and cultural expressions.
The first foreign colonizers were the Phoenicians , who initially founded various emporiums on the coasts of Sicily and Sardinia. Some of these quickly become small urban centers and develop parallel to the Greek colonies ; among the main centers are the cities of Mozia , Zyz , Kfra in Sicily and Nora , Sulci , Tharros in Sardinia.
After the eighth century BC , colonizers from Greece settled on the coasts of southern Italy giving life to Magna Graecia and those of Sicily. The Greek colonization places the Italic peoples in contact with democratic forms of government and with high artistic and cultural expressions. Rome , a settlement around a ford on the river Tiber in central Italy conventionally founded in BC, was ruled for a period of years by a monarchical system, initially with sovereigns of Latin and Sabine origin, later by Etruscan kings.
The Italian Peninsula, named Italia , was consolidated into a single entity during the Roman expansion and conquest of new lands at the expense of the other Italic tribes , Etruscans , Celts , and Greeks. A permanent association with most of the local tribes and cities was formed, and Rome began the conquest of Western Europe, Northern Africa and the Middle East.
In the wake of Julius Caesar 's rise and death in the first century BC, Rome grew over the course of centuries into a massive empire stretching from Britain to the borders of Persia , and engulfing the whole Mediterranean basin, in which Greek and Roman and many other cultures merged into a unique civilisation. The long and triumphant reign of the first emperor, Augustus , began a golden age of peace and prosperity.
Italy remained the metropole of the empire, and as the homeland of the Romans and the territory of the capital, maintained a special status which made it "not a province, but the Domina ruler of the provinces ". The Roman Empire was among the most powerful economic, cultural, political and military forces in the world of its time, and it was one of the largest empires in world history.
At its height under Trajan , it covered 5 million square kilometres. The Western Empire , under the pressure of the barbarian invasions , eventually dissolved in AD when its last emperor, Romulus Augustulus , was deposed by the Germanic chief Odoacer. The Eastern half of the Empire survived for another thousand years.
After the fall of the Western Roman Empire , Italy fell under the power of Odoacer's kingdom , and, later, was seized by the Ostrogoths ,  followed in the 6th century by a brief reconquest under Byzantine Emperor Justinian. The invasion of another Germanic tribe , the Lombards , late in the same century, reduced the Byzantine presence to the rump realm of the Exarchate of Ravenna and started the end of political unity of the peninsula for the next 1, years. Invasions of the peninsula caused a chaotic succession of barbarian kingdoms and the so-called " dark ages ".
The Lombard kingdom was subsequently absorbed into the Frankish Empire by Charlemagne in the late 8th century. The Franks also helped the formation of the Papal States in central Italy. Until the 13th century, Italian politics was dominated by the relations between the Holy Roman Emperors and the Papacy, with most of the Italian city-states siding with the former Ghibellines or with the latter Guelphs from momentary convenience.
However, the conflict for the investiture controversy a conflict over two radically different views of whether secular authorities such as kings, counts, or dukes, had any legitimate role in appointments to ecclesiastical offices and the clash between Guelphs and Ghibellines led to the end of the Imperial-feudal system in the north of Italy where city-states gained independence.
It was during this chaotic era that Italian towns saw the rise of a peculiar institution, the medieval commune. Given the power vacuum caused by extreme territorial fragmentation and the struggle between the Empire and the Holy See , local communities sought autonomous ways to maintain law and order. In a league of city-states, the Lombard League , defeated the German emperor Frederick Barbarossa at the Battle of Legnano , thus ensuring effective independence for most of northern and central Italian cities.
Italian city-states such as Milan, Florence and Venice played a crucial innovative role in financial development, devising the main instruments and practices of banking and the emergence of new forms of social and economic organization.
They were independent thalassocratic city-states, though most of them originated from territories once belonging to the Byzantine Empire. All these cities during the time of their independence had similar systems of government in which the merchant class had considerable power. Although in practice these were oligarchical, and bore little resemblance to a modern democracy , the relative political freedom they afforded was conducive to academic and artistic advancement.
Venice maintained enormous tracts of land in Greece, Cyprus, Istria and Dalmatia until as late as the midth century. Venice and Genoa were Europe's main gateway to trade with the East, and a producer of fine glass, while Florence was a capital of silk, wool, banks and jewellery.
The wealth such business brought to Italy meant that large public and private artistic projects could be commissioned. The republics were heavily involved in the Crusades , providing support and transport, but most especially taking advantage of the political and trading opportunities resulting from these wars. In the south, Sicily had become an Islamic emirate in the 9th century, thriving until the Italo-Normans conquered it in the late 11th century together with most of the Lombard and Byzantine principalities of southern Italy.
In Sardinia , the former Byzantine provinces became independent states known in Italian as Judicates , although some parts of the island fell under Genoese or Pisan rule until the eventual Aragonese annexation in the 15th century. The Black Death pandemic of left its mark on Italy by killing perhaps one third of the population. Italy was the birthplace and heart of the Renaissance during the s and s.
The Italian Renaissance marked the transition from the medieval period to the modern age as Europe recovered, economically and culturally, from the crises of the Late Middle Ages and entered the Early Modern Period. The Italian polities were now regional states effectively ruled by Princes , de facto monarchs in control of trade and administration, and their courts became major centres of Arts and Sciences. The Italian princedoms represented a first form of modern states as opposed to feudal monarchies and multinational empires.
Following the conclusion of the western schism in favour of Rome at the Council of Constance — , the new Pope Martin V returned to the Papal States after a three years-long journey that touched many Italian cities and restored Italy as the sole centre of Western Christianity. During the course of this voyage, the Medici Bank was made the official credit institution of the Papacy and several significant ties were established between the Church and the new political dynasties of the peninsula.
The Popes' status as elective monarchs turned the conclaves and consistories of the Renaissance into political battles between the courts of Italy for primacy in the peninsula and access to the immense resources of the Catholic Church. The fall of Constantinople led to the migration of Greek scholars and texts to Italy, fueling the rediscovery of Greco-Roman Humanism. Pico della Mirandola wrote the Oration on the Dignity of Man , considered the manifesto of Renaissance Humanism , in which he stressed the importance of free will in human beings.
The humanist historian Leonardo Bruni was the first to divide human history in three periods: Antiquity, Middle Ages and Modernity. Italian explorers and navigators from the dominant maritime republics, eager to find an alternative route to the Indies in order to bypass the Ottoman Empire, offered their services to monarchs of Atlantic countries and played a key role in ushering the Age of Discovery and the European colonization of the Americas. The most notable among them were: Christopher Columbus , colonizer in the name of Spain, who is credited with discovering the New World and the opening of the Americas for conquest and settlement by Europeans;  John Cabot , sailing for England, who was the first European to set foot in "New Found Land" and explore parts of the North American continent in ;  Amerigo Vespucci , sailing for Portugal, who first demonstrated in about that the New World in particular Brazil was not Asia as initially conjectured, but a fourth continent previously unknown to people of the Old World America is named after him ;   and Giovanni da Verrazzano , at the service of France, renowned as the first European to explore the Atlantic coast of North America between Florida and New Brunswick in ; .
Following the fall of Constantinople, the wars in Lombardy came to an end and a defensive alliance known as Italic League was formed between Venice, Naples, Florence, Milan, and the Papacy. Lorenzo the Magnificent de Medici was the greatest Florentine patron of the Renaissance and supporter of the Italic League. He notably avoided the collapse of the League in the aftermath of the Pazzi Conspiracy and during the aborted invasion of Italy by the Turks.
During the High Renaissance of the s, Italy was therefore both the main European battleground and the cultural-economic centre of the continent. Popes such as Julius II — fought for the control of Italy against foreign monarchs, others such as Paul III — preferred to mediate between the European powers in order to secure peace in Italy.
In the middle of this conflict, the Medici popes Leo X — and Clement VII — opposed the Protestant reformation and advanced the interests of their family. The end of the wars ultimately left northern Italy indirectly subject to the Austrian Habsburgs and Southern Italy under direct Spanish Habsburg rule. The Papacy remained independent and launched the Counter-reformation. The Italian economy declined during the s and s, as the peninsula was excluded from the rising Atlantic slave trade.
Following the European wars of succession of the 18th century, the south passed to a cadet branch of the Spanish Bourbons and the North fell under the influence of the Habsburg-Lorraine of Austria. The Congress of Vienna restored the situation of the late 18th century, but the ideals of the French Revolution could not be eradicated, and soon re-surfaced during the political upheavals that characterised the first part of the 19th century.
The birth of the Kingdom of Italy was the result of efforts by Italian nationalists and monarchists loyal to the House of Savoy to establish a united kingdom encompassing the entire Italian Peninsula. Following the Congress of Vienna in , the political and social Italian unification movement, or Risorgimento , emerged to unite Italy consolidating the different states of the peninsula and liberate it from foreign control.
A prominent radical figure was the patriotic journalist Giuseppe Mazzini , member of the secret revolutionary society Carbonari and founder of the influential political movement Young Italy in the early s, who favoured a unitary republic and advocated a broad nationalist movement. His prolific output of propaganda helped the unification movement stay active. The most famous member of Young Italy was the revolutionary and general Giuseppe Garibaldi , renowned for his extremely loyal followers,  who led the Italian republican drive for unification in Southern Italy.
However, the Northern Italy monarchy of the House of Savoy in the Kingdom of Sardinia , whose government was led by Camillo Benso, Count of Cavour , also had ambitions of establishing a united Italian state.
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Italy is located in Southern Europe ,   and is also considered part of Western Europe. Italy has a territorial enclave in Switzerland Campione and a maritime exclave in Tunisian waters Lampedusa. With around 60 million inhabitants, Italy is the third-most populous member state of the European Union. Due to its central geographic location in Southern Europe and the Mediterranean , Italy has historically been home to myriad peoples and cultures. In addition to the various ancient peoples dispersed throughout what is now modern-day Italy, the most predominant being the Indo-European Italic peoples who gave the peninsula its name, beginning from the classical era, Phoenicians and Carthaginians founded colonies mostly in insular Italy ,  Greeks established settlements in the so-called Magna Graecia of Southern Italy , while Etruscans and Celts inhabited central and northern Italy respectively. An Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom in the 8th century BC, which eventually became a republic with a government of the Senate and the People. The Roman Republic initially conquered and assimilated its neighbours on the Italian peninsula, eventually expanding and conquering parts of Europe , North Africa and Asia.
List of Countries of the World and Continents in Alphabetical Order · Download complete Country list, along with Continent they belong to, in PDF.
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Sub-Saharan Africa is, geographically and ethnoculturally, the area of the continent of Africa that lies south of the Sahara. According to the United Nations , it consists of all African countries and territories that are fully or partially south of the Sahara. The states of Somalia , Djibouti , Comoros , and the Arab -majority Mauritania and sometimes Sudan are, however, geographically considered part of sub-Saharan Africa, although they are members of the Arab League as well. The Sahara pump theory explains how flora and fauna including Homo sapiens left Africa to penetrate the Middle East and beyond. African pluvial periods are associated with a Wet Sahara phase, during which larger lakes and more rivers existed.
Its physical landscapes, political units, and ethnic groups are both wide-ranging and many. South Asia extends south from the main part of the continent to the Indian Ocean. The western boundary is the desert region where Pakistan shares a border with Iran. Hinduism, Islam, and Buddhism are the top three religions of South Asia. While Pakistan and Iran are both Islamic republics, each represents a significant branch of that faith; Iran is predominantly Shia, and Pakistan is mostly Sunni.
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Шифровалка снова купалась в ярких огнях. Внизу фреон протекал сквозь дымящийся ТРАНСТЕКСТ, как обогащенная кислородом кровь. Стратмор знал, что охладителю потребуется несколько минут, чтобы достичь нижней части корпуса и не дать воспламениться расположенным там процессорам. Он был уверен, что все сделал вовремя, и усмехнулся.
- Над ними склонился Фонтейн. - Посмотрим, что у них. Соши начала просматривать документ.
В обычных условиях такое действие считалось бы недопустимым. Но в сложившейся ситуации никакой опасности в загрузке в ТРАНСТЕКСТ этой программы не было, потому что коммандер точно знал, что это за файл и откуда он появился. - Несмотря на все мое уважение к вам, сэр, - продолжал настаивать Чатрукьян, - мне никогда еще не доводилось слышать о диагностике, в которой использовалась бы мутация… - Коммандер, - перебила его Сьюзан, которая не могла больше ждать.
Лицо у Смита было растерянным. - Сэр, мы до сих пор не имеем понятия, что это за предмет. Нам нужны указания. ГЛАВА 114 - Обыщите их еще раз! - потребовал директор. В отчаянии он наблюдал за тем, как расплывчатые фигуры агентов обыскивают бездыханные тела в поисках листка бумаги с беспорядочным набором букв и цифр.
Беккер мрачно кивнул. - Кому вы его продали. Тучный немец в полном недоумении сидел на кровати. Надежды на романтический вечер рушились по непонятной причине. - Was passiert? - нервно спросил .
Регистратура. Бедлам. Так он и. Очередь из десяти человек, толкотня и крик. Испания не славится эффективностью бюрократического аппарата, и Беккер понял, что ему придется простоять здесь всю ночь, чтобы получить информацию о канадце.
Два человека…. И вот Халохот уже за спиной жертвы. Как танцор, повторяющий отточенные движения, он взял чуть вправо, положил руку на плечо человеку в пиджаке цвета хаки, прицелился и… выстрелил.
Это невозможно, - раздраженно ответила женщина. - Мы очень заняты. Беккер старался говорить как можно официальнее: - Дело весьма срочное.