Discovering Qualitative Methods Field Research Interviews And Analysis Pdf
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- Qualitative research
- Discovering Qualitative Methods: Field Research, Interviews, and Analysis
The column covered over 35 common research terms used in the health and social sciences. The complete collection of defined terms is available online or in a guide that can be downloaded from the website. It provides an in-depth understanding of the ways people come to understand, act and manage their day-to-day situations in particular settings.
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Sociologists examine the world, see a problem or interesting pattern, and set out to study it. They use research methods to design a study—perhaps a detailed, systematic, scientific method for conducting research and obtaining data, or perhaps an ethnographic study utilizing an interpretive framework.
Planning the research design is a key step in any sociological study. When entering a particular social environment, a researcher must be careful. There are times to remain anonymous and times to be overt. There are times to conduct interviews and times to simply observe. Some participants need to be thoroughly informed; others should not know they are being observed. This is called the Hawthorne effect —where people change their behavior because they know they are being watched as part of a study.
The Hawthorne effect is unavoidable in some research. In many cases, sociologists have to make the purpose of the study known. Subjects must be aware that they are being observed, and a certain amount of artificiality may result Sonnenfeld That option is not available to a researcher studying prison behaviors, early education, or the Ku Klux Klan. In situations like these, other methods are needed. All studies shape the research design, while research design simultaneously shapes the study.
Researchers choose methods that best suit their study topics and that fit with their overall approaches to research. Every research method comes with plusses and minuses, and the topic of study strongly influences which method or methods are put to use.
As a research method, a survey collects data from subjects who respond to a series of questions about behaviors and opinions, often in the form of a questionnaire. The survey is one of the most widely used scientific research methods.
The standard survey format allows individuals a level of anonymity in which they can express personal ideas. Questionnaires are a common research method; the U. Census is a well-known example.
At some point, most people in the United States respond to some type of survey. The U. Census is an excellent example of a large-scale survey intended to gather sociological data. Not all surveys are considered sociological research, however, and many surveys people commonly encounter focus on identifying marketing needs and strategies rather than testing a hypothesis or contributing to social science knowledge.
A good contrast to these are the Nielsen Ratings, which determine the popularity of television programming through scientific market research. American Idol uses a real-time survey system—with numbers—that allows members in the audience to vote on contestants. Sociologists conduct surveys under controlled conditions for specific purposes.
Surveys gather different types of information from people. While surveys are not great at capturing the ways people really behave in social situations, they are a great method for discovering how people feel and think—or at least how they say they feel and think. Surveys can track preferences for presidential candidates or reported individual behaviors such as sleeping, driving, or texting habits or factual information such as employment status, income, and education levels.
A survey targets a specific population , people who are the focus of a study, such as college athletes, international students, or teenagers living with type 1 juvenile-onset diabetes. Most researchers choose to survey a small sector of the population, or a sample: that is, a manageable number of subjects who represent a larger population. The success of a study depends on how well a population is represented by the sample. In a random sample , every person in a population has the same chance of being chosen for the study.
According to the laws of probability, random samples represent the population as a whole. For instance, a Gallup Poll, if conducted as a nationwide random sampling, should be able to provide an accurate estimate of public opinion whether it contacts 2, or 10, people.
After selecting subjects, the researcher develops a specific plan to ask questions and record responses. It is important to inform subjects of the nature and purpose of the study up front.
If they agree to participate, researchers thank subjects and offer them a chance to see the results of the study if they are interested. The researcher presents the subjects with an instrument, which is a means of gathering the information. A common instrument is a questionnaire, in which subjects answer a series of questions.
For some topics, the researcher might ask yes-or-no or multiple-choice questions, allowing subjects to choose possible responses to each question. This kind of quantitative data —research collected in numerical form that can be counted—are easy to tabulate. In those cases, the answers are subjective and vary from person to person. How do plan to use your college education? Why do you follow Jimmy Buffett around the country and attend every concert?
Those types of questions require short essay responses, and participants willing to take the time to write those answers will convey personal information about religious beliefs, political views, and morals. Some topics that reflect internal thought are impossible to observe directly and are difficult to discuss honestly in a public forum.
People are more likely to share honest answers if they can respond to questions anonymously. This type of information is qualitative data —results that are subjective and often based on what is seen in a natural setting.
Qualitative information is harder to organize and tabulate. The researcher will end up with a wide range of responses, some of which may be surprising.
The benefit of written opinions, though, is the wealth of material that they provide. An interview is a one-on-one conversation between the researcher and the subject, and it is a way of conducting surveys on a topic. Interviews are similar to the short-answer questions on surveys in that the researcher asks subjects a series of questions. However, participants are free to respond as they wish, without being limited by predetermined choices.
In the back-and-forth conversation of an interview, a researcher can ask for clarification, spend more time on a subtopic, or ask additional questions. In an interview, a subject will ideally feel free to open up and answer questions that are often complex. There are no right or wrong answers. The subject might not even know how to answer the questions honestly. A researcher needs to avoid steering or prompting the subject to respond in a specific way; otherwise, the results will prove to be unreliable.
And, obviously, a sociological interview is not an interrogation. The work of sociology rarely happens in limited, confined spaces. Sociologists seldom study subjects in their own offices or laboratories.
Rather, sociologists go out into the world. They meet subjects where they live, work, and play. Field research refers to gathering primary data from a natural environment without doing a lab experiment or a survey. It is a research method suited to an interpretive framework rather than to the scientific method.
To conduct field research, the sociologist must be willing to step into new environments and observe, participate, or experience those worlds. In field work, the sociologists, rather than the subjects, are the ones out of their element. The researcher interacts with or observes a person or people and gathers data along the way.
Sociological researchers travel across countries and cultures to interact with and observe subjects in their natural environments. Field work is optimal for observing how people behave. It is less useful, however, for understanding why they behave that way.
Much of the data gathered in field research are based not on cause and effect but on correlation. And while field research looks for correlation, its small sample size does not allow for establishing a causal relationship between two variables. Business suits for the day job are replaced by leis and T-shirts for a Jimmy Buffett concert. Some sociologists study small groups of people who share an identity in one aspect of their lives. Almost everyone belongs to a group of like-minded people who share an interest or hobby.
Scientologists, folk dancers, or members of Mensa an organization for people with exceptionally high IQs express a specific part of their identity through their affiliation with a group. Those groups are often of great interest to sociologists.
Some of them have taken fandom to the extreme, making Parrothead culture a lifestyle. In , Parrotheads and their subculture caught the attention of researchers John Mihelich and John Papineau.
The two saw the way Jimmy Buffett fans collectively created an artificial reality. They wanted to know how fan groups shape culture.
What Mihelich and Papineau found was that Parrotheads, for the most part, do not seek to challenge or even change society, as many sub-groups do.
In fact, most Parrotheads live successfully within society, holding upper-level jobs in the corporate world. What they seek is escape from the stress of daily life.
At Jimmy Buffett concerts, Parrotheads engage in a form of role play. They paint their faces and dress for the tropics in grass skirts, Hawaiian leis, and Parrot hats. In that sense, Parrothead culture is less about individualism and more about conformity.
Being a Parrothead means sharing a specific identity. Many Parrothead fan groups have performed good works in the name of Jimmy Buffett culture, donating to charities and volunteering their services.
However, the authors suggest that what really drives Parrothead culture is commercialism. Buffett made a lucrative career for himself by partnering with product companies and marketing Margaritaville in the form of T-shirts, restaurants, casinos, and an expansive line of products.
Some fans accuse Buffett of selling out, while others admire his financial success. Mihelich and Papineau gathered much of their information online. In conducting studies about pockets of culture, most sociologists seek to discover a universal appeal.
Discovering Qualitative Methods: Field Research, Interviews, and Analysis
What is qualitative research? We define qualitative research as an iterative process in which improved understanding to the scientific community is achieved by making new significant distinctions resulting from getting closer to the phenomenon studied. This formulation is developed as a tool to help improve research designs while stressing that a qualitative dimension is present in quantitative work as well. Additionally, it can facilitate teaching, communication between researchers, diminish the gap between qualitative and quantitative researchers, help to address critiques of qualitative methods, and be used as a standard of evaluation of qualitative research. If we assume that there is something called qualitative research, what exactly is this qualitative feature?
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Discovering Qualitative Methods guides students on a journey into the study of social interaction and culture. This highly readable text covers all the major types of qualitative research: field research or ethnography, interviews, documents, andMoreDiscovering Qualitative Methods guides students on a journey into the study of social interaction and culture. This highly readable text covers all the major types of qualitative research: field research or ethnography, interviews, documents, and images. Throughout the text, Warren and Karner emphasize the process of social research--from the initial idea to the final paper, journal article, or scholarly monograph.
Buy Ebook from VitalSource. A rigorous but student-friendly and affordable introduction to qualitative research methods. Warren and Tracy Xavia Karner emphasize the process of social research--from the initial idea to the final paper, journal article, or scholarly monograph.
Она совсем. - Вот и прекрасно. Мистер Густафсон остановился .
А в довершение всего - Цифровая крепость, величайшая опасность, нависшая над разведывательной службой. И со всем этим ему приходится справляться в одиночку. Стоит ли удивляться, что он находится на грани срыва?. - С учетом обстоятельств, я полагаю, - сказала Сьюзан, - вам все же нужно позвонить директору. Стратмор покачал головой, и капля пота с его лба упала на стол.
У пистолета куда большая дальность действия, чем у полутораметрового подсвечника. Халохот двигался быстро, но осторожно. Ступени были настолько крутыми, что на них нашли свою смерть множество туристов. Это вам не Америка - никаких предупреждающих знаков, никаких поручней, никаких табличек с надписями, что страховые компании претензий не принимают. Это Испания.
Постучите тихонько. Я найду свободную комнату и покажу вам Испанию с такой стороны, что вам будет что вспомнить, - И она сладко причмокнула губами. Беккер изобразил улыбку. - Я должен идти.
Сьюзан сочла его план безукоризненным. Вот он - истинный Стратмор. Он задумал способствовать распространению алгоритма, который АНБ с легкостью взломает. - Полный и всеобщий доступ, - объяснял Стратмор.
На крыше главного служебного здания АНБ вырос лес из более чем пятисот антенн, среди которых были две большие антенны, закрытые обтекателями, похожими на громадные мячи для гольфа. Само здание также было гигантских размеров - его площадь составляла более двух миллионов квадратных футов, вдвое больше площади штаб-квартиры ЦРУ. Внутри было протянуто восемь миллионов футов телефонного кабеля, общая площадь постоянно закрытых окон составляла восемьдесят тысяч квадратных футов.
Это ты, приятель? - Он почувствовал, как рука незнакомца проскользнула к его бумажнику, чуть ослабив хватку. - Эдди! - крикнул. - Хватит валять дурака. Какой-то тип разыскивал Меган. Человек не выпускал его из рук.
Но в следующее мгновение послышался оглушающий визг шин, резко затормозивших на цементном полу, и шум снова накатил на Сьюзан, теперь уже сзади. Секунду спустя машина остановилась рядом с. - Мисс Флетчер! - раздался изумленный возглас, и Сьюзан увидела на водительском сиденье электрокара, похожего на те, что разъезжают по полям для гольфа, смутно знакомую фигуру.
Возможно ли. Информация, которую он выдал. Если Стратмор получил от Следопыта информацию, значит, тот работал. Она оказалась бессмысленной, потому что он ввел задание в неверной последовательности, но ведь Следопыт работал. Но Сьюзан тут же сообразила, что могла быть еще одна причина отключения Следопыта.
Беккер чувствовал жжение в боку, но кровотечение прекратилось. Он старался двигаться быстрее, знал, что где-то позади идет человек с пистолетом. Беккер смешался с толпой прихожан и шел с низко опущенной головой.
Спустились сумерки - самое романтическое время суток. Он подумал о Сьюзан. Но тут же в голову пришли слова Стратмора: Найдите кольцо. Беккер в отчаянии плюхнулся на скамейку и задумался о том, что делать .
- Ну. Я хорошо его знаю. Если вы принесете мне его паспорт, я позабочусь, чтобы он его получил.