self concept and self esteem pdf

Self Concept And Self Esteem Pdf

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In this chapter we outline some of the important theories of how children come to acquire a sense of their identity, and ideas of themselves as individuals having attributes and qualities of various kinds. We will try and link various theories of development in this field, including theories of Mead, Maslow, Erikson, Lewin and others.

What Is Self-Concept?

Conceived and designed the experiments: ML. Performed the experiments: ML QM. Wrote the paper: ML LW. To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis for the effects of physical activity intervention on self-esteem and self-concept in children and adolescents, and to identify moderator variables by meta-regression. Relevant studies were identified through a comprehensive search of electronic databases. For each study, study design, intervention design and participant characteristics were extracted.

R software version 3. Twenty-five randomized controlled trial RCT studies and 13 non-randomized controlled trial non-RCT studies including a total of cases were identified. There was no significant effect of intervention of physical activity alone on any outcomes in non-RCTs, as well as in studies with intervention of physical activity combined with other strategies.

Intervention of physical activity alone is associated with increased self-concept and self-worth in children and adolescents. And there is a stronger association with school-based and gymnasium-based intervention compared with other settings. Research has demonstrated that physical activity PA may provide physiological and psychological benefits[ 3 , 4 ].

Compared with traditional interventions, such as psychotherapy, psychosocial, and pharmacological interventions, PA has few side effects and is relatively cost-effective. Moreover, PA can be self-sustaining[ 5 ]. Besides the beneficial effects of PA on cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hypertension, cancer, osteoporosis and obesity[ 6 — 8 ], a growing literature suggests that PA can improve mental health[ 8 , 9 ], including depression, anxiety, self-esteem SE , self-concept SC , anger, stress, executive function and so on[ 10 — 13 ].

They both have pervasive impact on human mental status and behavior[ 17 , 18 ]. Positive SC is viewed as a desirable outcome in many educational and psychological situations, and SC is regarded as a mediating variable for promoting the achievement of certain outcomes, such as academic achievement[ 19 ].

Furthermore, physical SC is suggested to be a mediator of the association between PA and SE, which is inversely related to depression [ 4 ]. SE has been recognized as a component of a variety of psychopathologies. A search of the DSM-IV-TR [ 20 ] shows that the term "self-esteem" appears in 24 different diagnostic contexts as a criterion for disorders. Low level of SE in children and adolescents also predicts poor health, criminal behavior, and limited economic prospects during adulthood[ 24 , 25 ].

Thus it is important to determine effective interventions for improving SE and SC for juveniles. Despite that extensive research has evaluated the effects of PA on SE and SC in juveniles, contradictory findings have been suggested. Although many studies found that there were significant positive effects of PA on SE and SC[ 13 , 26 , 27 ], others did not detect such effects[ 28 — 30 ], let alone several others suggested negative effects[ 31 — 33 ].

Therefore, it is critical to comprehensively synthesize available evidence to determine the exact effects of PA on SE and SC in children and adolescents. Besides, whether the effects of PA intervention on SE and SC are context-dependent by moderators should be clarified to reveal in which conditions the effects exist. Meta-analysis of all available evidence is an appropriate design to clarify these questions.

Two meta-analyses have partially evaluated these questions. Despite the overall synthesization, there are several limitations for these studies. On the other hand, as Dishman suggested, it is warranted to pay attention to important moderator variables to better clarify the research questions[ 36 ].

Although Ekland and colleagues examined a potential moderator study quality of the association between PA and SE, the evaluation is compromised by the limited number of studies involved in the subgroups [ 34 ]. Additionally, neither of the two meta-analyses specially explored any other potential moderators of PA intervention on SE or SC, such as participant type, intervention setting, and so on.

The availability of these studies makes it possible to perform more comprehensive meta-regression analyses to identify additional moderators. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct an updated meta-analysis to provide a more accurate estimation for these research questions.

The purpose of the present study was thus to perform a meta-analysis of available literature to evaluate the efficacy of PA intervention on SE and SC in juveniles, and conduct a meta-regression analysis to identify effect moderators.

We aimed to figure out whether PA intervention might exert positive effects, and in which participants and settings the positive effect persist. Based on dose-response models[ 36 , 37 ] and relevant meta-analysis[ 3 ], we examined several potential moderators by meta-regression analysis, including: target population, PA setting and PA characteristics intensity per session, frequency and length of intervention , and study quality.

The asterisk means that larger words that contained the word or word fragment were included in the search. Furthermore, the reference lists of eligible articles were scrutinized by hand to identify additional studies.

When multiple reports representing the same study were found, the most relevant or complete report was included. Reports stratified by gender were treated as separate reports. Owing to the equating of the concept and operation of SE, SC, and SW in various studies[ 13 , 39 , 40 ], we took all three outcome measurements into account and evaluated their benefits from PA intervention.

Only the most relevant self outcome type was included in analysis. Relevant data from the included studies were extracted independently by two authors using EpiData 3. The following information was extracted from each study: first author, year, study design, participant characteristics, outcome measure, PA intervention design and effect sizes. Any disagreements were discussed until consensus was reached.

When the eligible studies did not present sufficient data, corresponding or first authors were contacted. The former consists of seven items: randomization sequence generation, inclusion and exclusion criteria, balance between groups at baseline, allocation concealment, blinding of participants, dropout and withdrawals, and follow up. A score of 1 was given for each of the points described above. Higher scores indicate higher study quality.

The quality scale ranges from 0 to 7 points. Subtypes were coded separately by two authors. There were three primary classifications: study design, PA intervention, and participant characteristics. PA intervention was coded by PA intervention type PA alone or PA combined with other skills , intervention setting school-based, gymnasium-based, family-based, clinic-based, detention facility-based, or camp-based , intensity of PA intervention minutes per session , frequency times per week 1 or 2 or 3 or 4 or 5 or 6 , and length of intervention weeks.

Participant characteristics consisted of gender female or male , and sample type normal, overweight, cerebral palsy, youth offender, sedentary, disability, or asthma. We used R software version 3. The effect size of each included study was calculated by computing the mean difference in gains posttest—pretest between the intervention group and control group and dividing by the pooled standard deviations of pre-test scores[ 44 ], since pretest standard deviations will not be influenced by different treatments and thus tend to be consistent across studies[ 45 ].

When the heterogeneity was zero, the fixed effects model was applied. Heterogeneity of effect size was assessed using the Q value and I-square statistic. To explore sources of heterogeneity, we performed planned meta-regression analysis. Based on previous analysis[ 35 ], potential between-study moderators were examined, including study quality, intervention format intensity, frequency, and length , setting of intervention, and participant type. Meta-regression analyses according to subtypes of study design were also conducted.

Additionally, we conducted sensitivity analyses. Adjusting for publication bias was assessed by the trim and fill method if there was significant publication bias[ 49 ]. After article screening, 38 studies with 39 reports one study[ 50 ] reported results stratified by gender including participants in treatment group and in control group fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were included in the final analysis Fig 1.

Three assessment variables were used to measure the outcome variable, including SE in 19 studies, SC in 7 studies 1 study used self-image to measure SC , and SW in 12 studies. It is worth noting that, although several studies used self-perception scales, only one subscale SE, SC or SW was considered as the outcome in each study.

About 16 questionnaires or scales were applied to measure the 3 variables. Twenty-four studies used intervention of PA alone and other 14 studies used intervention of PA combined with other strategies.

Intervention setting varied across studies. Twenty-four studies were school-based, 2 interventions were family-based, 5 interventions were gymnasium-based, 3 interventions were clinic-based, 3 interventions were performed in detention facilities, and 1 study was camp-based.

The length of intervention ranged from 4 to about 80 weeks 2 academic years. Among them, 7 interventions lasted less than 8 weeks, 24 interventions lasted between 8 to 20 weeks, and 7 trainings lasted over 20 weeks. Exercise intensity for each session ranged from 20 to about minutes.

Only 2 studies were with less than 30 minutes per session; 11 studies took 30—45 minutes per session; 21 interventions took more than 45 minutes per session; and the remaining 4 studies did not indicate the exact time. Sample sizes of the 38 studies ranged from 17 to the median sample size was Among the 38 studies, 26 studies involved both male and female participants, 8 with only males, and 4 with only females. Generally, the risks of bias for included RCTs were from moderate to high.

Twelve RCTs clearly stated that they used randomization sequence generated via computer. Ten studies reported allocation concealment, 7 studies stated blinding method, and 7 studies indicated the follow-up information. The detailed description of the characteristics of included RCTs is demonstrated in Table 1. For non-RCTs, the risks of bias for included studies were general low. Scores ranged from 4 to 8 points. The detailed description of the characteristics of included non-RCTs is shown in Table 2.

No significant pooled effect size was found on SE. Stratified analysis showed that no significant pooled effect size was found on SE. Limited number of studies precluded stratified analyses for SC and SW. There was no significant pooled effect size for intervention of PA combined with other strategies on general self outcome. With regards to subtype of outcome, no significant pooled effect size was found in any subgroup, regardless of type of study design.

However, there was a significant association between intervention effect sizes and settings school, gymnasium, clinic, detention facility, family, or others. No significant association was found between effect sizes and intensity of intervention, frequency of intervention, length of intervention, participant type, and study quality in RCTs, as well as all assessed factors in non-RCTs. For non-RCTs with intervention of PA alone, sensitivity analysis revealed that heterogeneity between studies was mainly caused by one study conducted by Percy et al[ 51 ].

After we omit this study from the analysis, there was no significant heterogeneity for general self I 2 from Exclusion of this study from the analysis did not substantially alter the overall effect size. Similarly, exclusion of this study from the analysis did not substantially alter the overall effect size.

Results of this meta-analysis suggest that intervention of PA alone is an effective method to improve SW and SC in juveniles, although the effect sizes were small in magnitude. The lack of publication bias and very low heterogeneity in RCTs evaluating intervention of PA alone and non-RCTs evaluating intervention of PA combined with other strategies suggest that our results were relatively robust.

However, caution is required in interpretation of effects of intervention of PA alone in non-RCTs and intervention of PA combined with other strategies in RCTs, since there were significant heterogeneities across studies.

We further identified that, one non-RCT [ 51 ] with intervention of PA alone with small sample size, as well as one RCT with intervention of PA combined with other strategies [ 26 ] contributed to the majority of the observed heterogeneity.

Self-Concept, Self-Esteem, Gender, Race, and Information Technology Use

Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. Manning Published Psychology. She was tall for her age and often bullied her younger, smaller classmates. The school counselor placed Deena in a self-esteem group and taught lessons from a popular selfesteem curriculum. Save to Library. Create Alert.

Access options available:. While it is recognized that self-concept and self-esteem affect the academic achievement of students, few publications have focused on the affective and psychological needs of students who are gifted and ethnically or culturally diverse. In this article, we extend the discussion of self-concept and achievement by focusing on how racial identity development affects the achievement of gifted African American students. We argue that few efforts, designed to improve gifted Black students' achievement and social-emotional well-being, will be successful until educators focus specifically on their racial identity. While we acknowledge that a focus on racial identity is necessary for all African American students, we are most concerned in this article with gifted Black students because so few have been identified as gifted. Along with describing racial identity development and issues facing gifted African American students, we offer solutions for change.

Self-concept is the image that we have of ourselves. How exactly does this self-image form and change over time? This image develops in a number of ways but is particularly influenced by our interactions with important people in our lives. Self-concept is generally thought of as our individual perceptions of our behavior, abilities, and unique characteristics—a mental picture of who you are as a person. Self-concept tends to be more malleable when people are younger and still going through the process of self-discovery and identity formation. As people age, self-perceptions become much more detailed and organized as people form a better idea of who they are and what is important to them.


PDF | Self-concept and self-esteem: How the content of the self-concept reveals sources and functions of self-esteem The relations of content of.


Self-Concept, Self-Image and Self-Esteem

If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to reset your password. If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to retrieve your username. This research addressed two fundamental questions regarding self-concept, self-esteem, gender, race, and information technology use. Five hundred youth, average age 12 years old, one third African American and two thirds Caucasian American, completed multidimensional measures of self-concept, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem scale, and measures of frequency of Internet use, Internet use for communication e-mail and instant messaging , video game playing, and cell phone use. Findings indicated that technology use predicted dimensions of self-concept and self-esteem, with video game playing having a negative influence and Internet use having a positive influence on self-concept dimensions.

Background: Identification of the role of factors such as self-esteem and self-efficacy and the investigation of their relationship among students can bring about improvement of educational planning and enhance the teaching outcome. This study aimed at investigating the relationship between self-esteem and self-efficacy among the students of medical sciences. Methods: The present study is an analytical-descriptive which was conducted as a cross-sectional study on students of Fasa University of Medical Sciences in

The High School Journal

Self-Concept, Self-Esteem, Gender, Race, and Information Technology Use

By Dr. Saul McLeod , published The self-concept is a general term used to refer to how someone thinks about, evaluates or perceives themselves. To be aware of oneself is to have a concept of oneself. The self-concept is an important term for both social and humanistic psychology. Lewis suggests that the development of a concept of self has two aspects:. This is 'the most basic part of the self-scheme or self-concept; the sense of being separate and distinct from others and the awareness of the constancy of the self' Bee,

Self-esteem is a positive or negative orientation toward oneself; an overall evaluation of one's worth or value. People are motivated to have high self-esteem, and having it indicates positive self-regard, not egotism. Self-esteem is only one component of the self-concept, which Rosenberg defines as "totality of the individual's thoughts and feelings with reference to himself as an object. Because of its widespread popularity in everyday parlance and in popular psychology, the concept of self-esteem may be subject to distortion and misuse. Thus, it is recommended that that those using the scale be familiar with the scientific study of this concept and its complexities. Rosenberg's books are a good starting point.


PDF | Despite an ample study and analysis of Self concept and Self esteem, not a solitary deconstructive work has been done on the Effect of.


One's self-concept also called self-construction , self-identity , self-perspective or self-structure is a collection of beliefs about oneself. Self-concept is distinguishable from self-awareness , which refers to the extent to which self-knowledge is defined, consistent, and currently applicable to one's attitudes and dispositions. Self-concept is made up of one's self-schemas , and interacts with self-esteem, self-knowledge, and the social self to form the self as a whole.

Aims: Findings of some researches and studies explaining the role and importance of emotional intelligence, self-concept and self esteem in academic achievement. This study was conducted to explore the relationship between emotional intelligence, self-concept and self esteem with academic achievement. Methods : This cross correlation of all 6, students at the University of Kashan undergraduate academic year were enrolled and were male and female students as a sample randomly chosen.

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