masculine and feminine gender list of animals pdf

Masculine And Feminine Gender List Of Animals Pdf

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Gender is a range of characteristics of femininity and masculinity. Grammatical gender is defined as a system of noun classification.

In linguistics , grammatical gender is a specific form of noun class system in which the division of noun classes forms an agreement system with another aspect of the language, such as adjectives, articles, pronouns, or verbs. Whereas some authors use the term "grammatical gender" as a synonym of "noun class", others use different definitions for each; many authors prefer "noun classes" when none of the inflections in a language relate to sex.

Animal Names: Male, Female, and Young

In linguistics , grammatical gender is a specific form of noun class system in which the division of noun classes forms an agreement system with another aspect of the language, such as adjectives, articles, pronouns, or verbs. Whereas some authors use the term "grammatical gender" as a synonym of "noun class", others use different definitions for each; many authors prefer "noun classes" when none of the inflections in a language relate to sex.

Gender systems are used in approximately one quarter of the world's languages. In these languages, most or all nouns inherently carry one value of the grammatical category called gender ; [1] the values present in a given language of which there are usually two or three are called the genders of that language. According to one definition: "Genders are classes of nouns reflected in the behaviour of associated words. Common gender divisions include masculine and feminine; masculine, feminine, and neuter; or animate and inanimate.

In a few languages, the gender assignment of nouns is solely determined by their meaning or attributes, like biological sex, [5] humanness, or animacy. In languages with grammatical gender, each noun is assigned to one of the classes called genders , which form a closed set. Most such languages usually have from two to four different genders, but some are attested with up to The division into genders usually correlates to some degree, at least for a certain set of nouns such as those denoting humans , with some property or properties of the things that particular nouns denote.

Such properties include animacy or inanimacy, " humanness " or non-humanness, and biological sex. Few or no nouns can occur in more than one class. Gender is considered an inherent quality of nouns, and it affects the forms of other related words, a process called "agreement". Nouns may be considered the "triggers" of the process, whereas other words will be the "target" of these changes. These related words can be, depending on the language: determiners , pronouns , numerals , quantifiers , possessives , adjectives , past and passive participles , articles , verbs , adverbs , complementizers , and adpositions.

Gender class may be marked on the noun itself, but will also always be marked on other constituents in a noun phrase or sentence. If the noun is explicitly marked, both trigger and target may feature similar alternations. Ibrahim identified three possible functions of grammatical gender: [13].

Among these, role 2 is probably the most important in everyday usage. In the English phrase " a flowerbed in the garden which I maintain " only context tells us whether the relative clause which I maintain refers to the whole garden or just the flowerbed. In German, gender distinction prevents such ambiguity. The word for " flower bed" Bett is neuter, whereas that for "garden" Garten is masculine. Hence, if a neuter relative pronoun is used, the relative clause refers to "bed", and if a masculine pronoun is used, the relative clause refers to "garden".

Because of this, languages with gender distinction can often use pronouns where in English a noun would have to be repeated in order to avoid confusion. It does not, however, help in cases where the words are of the same grammatical gender.

There are often several synonymous nouns of different grammatical gender to pick from to avoid this, however. Moreover, grammatical gender may serve to distinguish homophones.

It is a quite common phenomenon in language development for two phonemes to merge, thereby making etymologically distinct words sound alike. In languages with gender distinction, however, these word pairs may still be distinguishable by their gender.

Common systems of gender contrast include: [ citation needed ]. Nouns that denote specifically male persons or animals are normally of masculine gender; those that denote specifically female persons or animals are normally of feminine gender; and nouns that denote something that does not have any sex, or do not specify the sex of their referent, have come to belong to one or other of the genders, in a way that may appear arbitrary.

This is similar to systems with a masculine—feminine contrast, except that there is a third available gender, so nouns with sexless or unspecified-sex referents may be either masculine, feminine, or neuter. This is because it is actually a diminutive of "Magd" and all diminutive forms with the suffix -chen are neuter. Examples of languages with such a system include later forms of Proto-Indo-European see below , Sanskrit , some Germanic languages , most Slavic languages , some Romance languages , Marathi , Latin , and Greek.

Here nouns that denote animate things humans and animals generally belong to one gender, and those that denote inanimate things to another although there may be some deviation from that principle. Examples include earlier forms of Proto-Indo-European and the earliest family known to have split off from it, the extinct Anatolian languages see below.

Modern examples include Algonkian languages such as Ojibwe. Here a masculine—feminine—neuter system previously existed, but the distinction between masculine and feminine genders has been lost they have merged into what is called common gender. Thus nouns denoting people are usually of common gender, whereas other nouns may be of either gender. The dialect of the old Norwegian capital Bergen also uses common gender and neuter exclusively. This makes some obviously feminine noun phrases like "a cute girl", "the well milking cow" or "the pregnant mares" sound strange to most Norwegian ears when spoken by Danes and people from Bergen since they are inflected in a way that sounds like the masculine declensions in South-Eastern Norwegian dialects.

The same does not apply to Swedish common gender, as the declensions follow a different pattern from both the Norwegian written languages. As shown, the merger of masculine and feminine in these languages and dialects can be considered a reversal of the original split in Proto-Indo-European see below. Some gender contrasts are referred to as classes ; for some examples, see Noun class.

In some of the Slavic languages , for example, within the masculine and sometimes feminine and neuter genders, there is a further division between animate and inanimate nouns—and in Polish , also sometimes between nouns denoting humans and non-humans.

For details, see below. A human—non-human or "rational—non-rational" distinction is also found in Dravidian languages. See below. Although the idea that language can constrain or significantly impact thought has been largely disregarded by modern linguistics [ citation needed ] , a number of minor cognitive effects of features including grammatical gender have been consistently demonstrated.

This has been observed for speakers of Spanish, French, and German, among others. Caveats of this research include the possibility of subjects "using grammatical gender as a strategy for performing the task", [18] and the fact that even for inanimate objects the gender of nouns is not always random.

For example, in Spanish, female gender is often attributed to objects that are "used by women, natural, round, or light" and male gender to objects "used by men, artificial, angular, or heavy. Another kind of test asks people to describe a noun, and attempts to measure whether it takes on gender-specific connotations depending on the speaker's native language.

A noun may belong to a given class because of characteristic features of its referent , such as sex, animacy, shape, although in some instances a noun can be placed in a particular class based purely on its grammatical behavior. Some authors use the term "grammatical gender" as a synonym of "noun class", but others use different definitions for each. Many authors prefer "noun classes" when none of the inflections in a language relate to sex, such as when an animate —inanimate distinction is made.

Note, however, that the word "gender" derives from Latin genus also the root of genre which originally meant "kind", so it does not necessarily have a sexual meaning.

A classifier, or measure word , is a word or morpheme used in some languages together with a noun, principally to enable numbers and certain other determiners to be applied to the noun. They are not regularly used in English or other European languages, although they parallel the use of words such as piece s and head in phrases like "three pieces of paper" or "thirty head of cattle".

They are a prominent feature of East Asian languages , where it is common for all nouns to require a classifier when being quantified—for example, the equivalent of "three people" is often "three classifier people". A more general type of classifier classifier handshapes can be found in sign languages.

Classifiers can be considered similar to genders or noun classes, in that a language which uses classifiers normally has a number of different ones, used with different sets of nouns. These sets depend largely on properties of the things that the nouns denote for example, a particular classifier may be used for long thin objects, another for flat objects, another for people, another for abstracts, etc.

Grammatical gender can be realized as inflection and can be conditioned by other types of inflection, especially number inflection, where the singular-plural contrast can interact with gender inflection. The grammatical gender of a noun manifests itself in two principal ways: in the modifications that the noun itself undergoes, and in modifications of other related words agreement.

Grammatical gender manifests itself when words related to a noun like determiners , pronouns or adjectives change their form inflect according to the gender of noun they refer to agreement. The parts of speech affected by gender agreement, the circumstances in which it occurs, and the way words are marked for gender vary between languages.

Gender inflection may interact with other grammatical categories like number or case. In some languages the declension pattern followed by the noun itself will be different for different genders.

The gender of a noun may affect the modifications that the noun itself undergoes, particularly the way in which the noun inflects for number and case. For example, a language like Latin , German or Russian has a number of different declension patterns, and which pattern a particular noun follows may be highly correlated with its gender.

For some instances of this, see Latin declension. A concrete example is provided by the German word See , which has two possible genders: when it is masculine meaning "lake" its genitive singular form is Sees , but when it is feminine meaning "sea" , the genitive is See , because feminine nouns do not take the genitive -s.

Gender is sometimes reflected in other ways. In Welsh , gender marking is mostly lost on nouns; however, Welsh has initial mutation , where the first consonant of a word changes into another in certain conditions. Gender is one of the factors that can cause one form of mutation soft mutation. For instance, the word merch "girl" changes into ferch after the definite article. This only occurs with feminine singular nouns: mab "son" remains unchanged. Adjectives are affected by gender in a similar way.

Additionally, in many languages, gender is often closely correlated with the basic unmodified form lemma of the noun, and sometimes a noun can be modified to produce for example masculine and feminine words of similar meaning.

Agreement , or concord, is a grammatical process in which certain words change their form so that values of certain grammatical categories match those of related words. Gender is one of the categories which frequently require agreement. In this case, nouns may be considered the "triggers" of the process, because they have an inherent gender, whereas related words that change their form to match the gender of the noun can be considered the "target" of these changes. These related words can be, depending on the language: determiners , pronouns , numerals , quantifiers , possessives , adjectives , past and passive participles , verbs , adverbs , complementizers , and adpositions.

Gender class may be marked on the noun itself, but can also be marked on other constituents in a noun phrase or sentence. As an example, we consider Spanish , a language with two gender categories: "natural" vs "grammatical".

Natural gender refers to the biological sex of most animals and people, while grammatical gender refers to certain acoustic characteristics the sounds at the end, or beginning of a noun.

Among other lexical items, the definite article changes its form according this categorization. In the singular, the article is: el masculine , [23] and la feminine. In "grammatical" gender, most words that end in -a , -d and -z are marked with "feminine" articles, while all others use the "generic" or "masculine" articles. In some languages the gender is distinguished only in singular number but not in plural. In terms of linguistic markedness , these languages neutralize the gender opposition in the plural, itself a marked category.

So adjectives and pronouns have three forms in singular e. As a consequence pluralia tantum nouns lacking a singular form cannot be assigned a gender. Other languages, e. Serbo-Croatian , allow doubly marked forms both for number and gender. In these languages, each noun has a definite gender no matter the number. For example, djeca "children" is feminine singularia tantum and vrata "door" is neuter pluralia tantum. Pronouns may agree in gender with the noun or noun phrase to which they refer their antecedent.

French Animal Names : What to Call Your Dog if it’s a Female

Gender is a category of noun. There are four types of Genders. Masculine Gender: The names of all male persons or animals are said to be of the Masculine Gender. Feminine Gender: The names of all female persons or animals are said to be of the Feminine Gender. Example: woman, aunt, daughter, actress, queen, lioness etc.

Are there masculine or feminine words in English? But sometimes we show gender in different words when referring to people or animals. On this day, we recognise the social, economic, cultural and political achievements of women. In technical terms, gender in languages is just one way of breaking up nouns into classes or categories. A noun is a part of language that names a person, place, thing, idea, action or quality. For example, nouns can refer to an individual name of a person. Like Mike or Amrita.

Animal Names Glossary

Who doesn't like animals? Even if you've never had a pet, you've probably watched the odd documentary here and there. Animals are a pretty universal topic of conversation, and the following lists should prepare you for conversation with pretty much any animal lover. Before getting started with vocabulary, there's a grammar point you should be aware of.

I recently received a very interesting and unusual question that I had never been asked before. As the answer covers a few different areas, I was immediately inspired to write an article and share it with you. Thanks a lot Tish for your question!

We know that living beings are either the male or the female sex. Some of the worksheets for this concept are Masculine and feminine nouns, Titles available in the quizmeon series, Masculine and feminine looking at, Nouns gender, List of masculine and feminine gender, The gender of nouns, Work gender of nouns, Nouns. Found worksheet you are looking for?

Masculine And Feminine Gender Quiz

Masculine And Feminine Gender Quiz. But that's just part of the picture! When it comes down to you and gender identity, it depends on whether or not you strive to meet society's. Durham: Duke UP,

Она ждала чего угодно, но только не. - Внешний файл. Вы не шутите. - Если бы я шутил… Я поставил его вчера в одиннадцать тридцать вечера. Шифр до сих пор не взломан.

Нам нужен этот шифр-убийца, или все здесь провалится сквозь землю. Все стояли не шелохнувшись. - Да вы просто с ума все сошли, что ли? - закричал Джабба.  - Звоните Танкадо. Скажите, что мы сдаемся.

Разгромив очередного партнера, он шел охладиться к фонтанчику с питьевой водой и опускал в него голову. Затем, с еще мокрыми волосами, угощал поверженного соперника орешками и соком. Как у всех молодых профессоров, университетское жалованье Дэвида было довольно скромным. Время от времени, когда надо было продлить членство в теннисном клубе или перетянуть старую фирменную ракетку, он подрабатывал переводами для правительственных учреждений в Вашингтоне и его окрестностях.

 Больше трех часов. Стратмор кивнул. Она не выглядела взволнованной. - Новая диагностика.

Grammatical gender

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Contiodupda1963

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Jasmine E.

Learn the masculine and feminine gender of animals in English. Male and female animal names list with pictures. Ultimate gender list. Download PDF.

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Pinabel O.

Feb 18, - Memorize examples of Masculine and Feminine gender List in English with PDF for Class 2 and Class 3.

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