Authenticity And Originality In Ezra Pound And Walter Benjamin Pdf
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- Paleolithic Media: Deep Time and Ezra Pound’s Methods
- Paleolithic Media: Deep Time and Ezra Pound’s Methods
Refworks Account Login. Open Collections. UBC Theses and Dissertations. Featured Collection. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives.
It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.
After cataloguing the principal means by which quotation is marked, the thesis assesses the notion most clearly formulated by Walter Benjamin that the great power of quotation lies in its interruptive power rather than in its value as authority in argument Chapter 3. Such interruptive power, drawing attention as it does to the multiplicity of voices available in the text, reinforces our sense of The Cantos as an oral text.
This chapter and the one following — which traces the connections between The Cantos and oral traditions and traditional techniques — suggests that the neglect of the oral qualities of quotation has led critics to consider the poem as deeply and irretrievably fragmented.
Situating The Cantos in relation to other oral works shows not only the ways in which Pound draws on the tension between the aural and the visual elements of the poem and of language speech and song in contrast to the written but also the pervasive omnipresence of the heard: the play of ear against eye is a play of melopceia against phanopceia, and the text of The Cantos is most fruitfully to be seen as a score for the speaking voice.
Such orality enables Pound to draw directly upon the resources and techniques of the classical rhetorical tradition, thereby enabling him in quoting the words of others to lend their words the authority of his own voice.
The poem thus achieves a strong i i sense of a multiplicity of voices and effects unified by the presence of the poet himself, without compromising Pound's conviction shared with Yeats and Williams and others of his contemporaries that rhetoric is utterly to be distinguished from poetry, and kept separate from it.
To present the material in a standardized traditional form would distort the text and would not adequately demonstrate the effects of the original. Therefore, selections from The Cantos quoted in this text include unusual line and word spacings, a variety of font styles and sizes, unusual punctuation, abbreviations, graphics, ideograms and hieroglyphics. I owe, too, a great deal to friends and family who have put up with my occasionally erratic-seeming behaviour, and who provided all sorts of general assistance and encouragement, especially Marion Bringhurst, Elizabeth Tayler, Alan Hunt, Janne Hicklin, Paul Read, Skeeter Verlaine-Wright and Patrick Royle.
Robert Bringhurst has been especially helpful with Greek translations and other matters of "the heart's law. And I must not neglect the "fire" crew, who came out in the middle of the night during the Heckel H i l l forest fire, to evacuate the dissertation and the computer first, me and my other belongings second.
I am grateful for funding from the P. O Sisterhood, and for Graduate Fellowships from the University of British Columbia, which made it possible for me to undertake graduate studies in the early s.
Yukon College graciously allowed me a reduced work load, for three months in , making it possible to finish this dissertation. The staff at the Yukon College Library and UBC extension services have all gone far beyond the call of duty helping me to obtain copies of books and articles not v i i normally available in the Yukon, and in some cases scarce and unusual anywhere.
Datapac and fax machines helped in the process, but the people at either end were always extremely helpful and cheerful. And finally, I owe very special thanks to my thesis supervisor, Dr. Peter A. From start to finish, his encouragement, unfailing good cheer, and long-distance assistance with locating texts, have been the inspiration to keep going, especially when the task seemed unreasonable or impossible, given the distance and isolation.
As Jacob Korg observes, "Even the parts of the poem that are not wholesale borrowings are filled with shorter quotations" "Collage" The quoted material is often clearly and variously marked — by traditional punctuation marks and speech predicators, as well as a wide range of other grammatical and graphemic features, and verbal cues. Frequently, there is also some reference to the source. Instinctively I felt that there must be a pattern in those various markings, and I wanted, I thought, to map that pattern, to describe it and see how it connected to the substance of the poem.
So I set about the laborious task of noting and annotating marked quotation in the text. Three journals later, it became clear that nearly all of my annotations dealt with sound, with the oral qualities of the texts. The patterns that emerged were in my ear, not on the page, and not in the punctuation, the speech predicators, or the references to speech. Which is not to say that the visual features had no patterns; rather, they reinforce the sense of voice, framing visually what the inner or imaginary ear was already responding to, echoes, rough rhymes, repetition, etc.
Because Pound says so much about the sounds and rhythms of voice — particularly about the natural voice of the live man speaking, and the various tonal 2 Drinking the Tone of Things and rhythmic qualities of syllables — it is essential to attend Pound's own words on the matter.
The issue of live voice appears in his letters, his essays, his poems — everything he wrote, regardless of subject, be it poetry, economics, music or history. In general terms, Pound favoured the view that history is preserved and transmitted through the oral tradition: "the heart's law transmitted viva voce from master to pupil, memorized and talked back and forth as mutual control of invariable modus of action" Confucius This is a belief paralleled in a proverb of some Athapaskan people in northern Canada: to reach the heart, a thing must go in through the ear.
Listener and teller share a dependency on voice and audition. On the occasion of the publication of Ulysses, Ezra Pound praised James Joyce's ability to speak with many voices, and to convey the atmosphere of place and event: Joyce speaks if not with the tongues of men and angels, at least with a many-tongued and multiple language, of small boys, street preachers, of genteel and ungenteel, of bowsers and undertakers, of Gertie McDowell and M r Deasey.
Like the voices in Ulysses, the voices in Pound's quotations have that power to convey an atmosphere, the tone of things. Indeed, for Pound, one of the greatest values of language is found in its non-semantic qualities, which generate communication of an essentially emotional nature, melopceia, which can in turn work with semantic qualities to "charge" words "over and above their plain meaning" "Read," LE Quotations have attracted more critical and scholarly attention than perhaps any other feature of The Cantos of Ezra Pound.
Given their extent and variety in the poem, this is understandable: they appear in virtually every Canto. Ubiquitous and prominent, quotations provoke and demand attention. Yet much of the critical attention begins and ends with the identification of sources or the analysis of what the quotations actually say. There are annotated indices, such as Carroll F. Vasse , and a regular feature in Paideuma that deals with factual material, "The Explicator.
In some cases, the focus is on reviewing what information the quotations add to the text, usually in an effort to explain historical and philosophical backgrounds, or to expose supposed intentions, perhaps even to determine Pound's reading habits — Andrew J.
Kappel examines the books that Pound had access to, during the writing of the Rock-Drill and Thrones sections of The Cantos; he argues that the books effectively were his environment, and conversely that the books are reflected in those Cantos.
On the other hand, references to quotation often are secondary or incidental to some other discussion, as in the major critical works on Pound — including Hugh Kenner's The Pound Era , Leon Surette's Light from Eleusis , George Dekker's Sailing after Knowledge , Herbert N.
These critics discuss 5 Drinking the Tone of Things quotation, with respect to either the content or the form, as it relates to some other theory of The Cantos, rather than dealing with quotation in and of itself.
Yet in spite of the many works that address quotation in some manner, the criticism dealing with quotations The Cantos is the least resolved of any area of scholarship relating to Pound's work. The great difficulty critics have found in dealing with the volume and variety of quoted material in the poem has of course lessened as more and more research is done; nevertheless, critics still neglect the rhetorical issues raised by Pound's extensive use of quotation, in favour of thematizing their readings of the text.
A good deal of attention has been paid, therefore, to the unrelatedness and fragmentary nature of the quotations, with critics suggesting that unity is precluded, prevented or obscured by the disruptive qualities of some portions and features of the text, usually involving quotation.
In considering the effects of quotation on overall form, the primary focus has been on the fragmentary nature of the text Dekker, Surette, Davie, Bush, for example. Some critics have focussed on the various things that Pound did with the 6 Drinking the Tone of Things material that he borrowed altering texts, transliteration, etc.
Leon Surette, in A Light from Eleusis, works on the assumption that "Pound's epic is more a collection of poetry than a single coherent poem" Preface vii. Sometimes, the work is simply termed a great failure as a long poem. Arguments of this sort usually rely heavily on features of the text as text, as opposed to the poem as voiced — repetitions of content, such as recurrent themes, for example — rather than the qualities of voice or speech, such as the repetitions of sound.
Pound's remarks about fugue, for instance, have sent a number of critics scurrying for ways to map The Cantos as fugue with respect to themes, or ways to prove the term inappropriate. In some instances, the remark has directed critics away from ear and towards the more tangible, or more easily identified, structures of the poem.
Thus Kay Davis's discussion of Ring Composition, relies on the features of the text as a written document, in which the linearity of the spoken performance is clearly at odds with the recursive — that is, re-cursive, or re-written and re-read "Ideogram and Ring Composition" in Fugue and Fresco Indeed, her discussion of The Cantos is remarkable for its neglect of the oral and aural qualities of Pound's work.
Which is to say, it is a literate view of an oral issue. Little of the discussion centered on quotations deals thoroughly with voices and sounds — orality — or with the rhetorical power of quotations. Few critics have looked closely at the oral qualities of quoted material in The Cantos, and few have linked those qualities to Pound's many references and reflections about qualities of voice and sound.
Many critics do touch briefly on oral aspects of the quotations, but often they treat the subject as an afterthought or aside, or a corollary to some other point, and from a literate perspective.
The only critic who has dealt with the issue to any degree is Max Nanny, who considers both the dimensions and the roots of the oral in The Cantos, basing his investigations on the oral traditions of both Greece and ancient Israel "Oral Roots of Ezra Pound's Methods of Quotations and Abbreviation" and "Oral Dimensions in Ezra Pound" His investigations stop short of 8 Drinking the Tone of Things an examination of the actual sounds of the text.
Also, he shifts his focus from the Greek to the Rabbinic traditions, and then later to Menippean satire "Ezra Pound and the Menippean Tradition" , without providing a thorough overview of the whole oral process, and without considering more modern oral conditions.
Having determined the existence of oral roots, and oral dimensions, it remains to consider how orality works in the text. Pound's interest in orality is evident throughout his writings and throughout his life — witness his comments about the voices in Ulysses. For most of his life, he advocated the natural phrase, the language of speech, the rhythm of the speaking voice: the live man speaking.
Referring to a draft of The Cantos, he used the phrase "I am speaking about. Words must "come to life in audition. He comments on everything from vowel duration, to intentional pauses, to pitch, to natural phrasing, natural rhythm, shaggy rhymes and more. That concern would at times override his interest in original sources or particular meaning: he deliberately introduced errors, misattributed quotations, and urged poets to study language for its sound, for its sound exclusive of meaning.
For understanding 9 Drinking the Tone of Things rhythm, he recommends the following: Let the candidate fill his mind with the finest cadences he can discover, preferably in a foreign language, so that the meaning of the words may be less likely to divert his attention from the movement; e.
LE 5 For Pound, the sound of language is meaning — meaning on a more visceral level than can occur with semantics, the direct and intimate communication, ideogrammic, without interference of the analytical mind.
Play of sound and image before play of meaning: melopma. Freud taught us to pay attention to the aside, the seemingly casual utterance, as did novelists like Henry James. Pound's own asides and seemingly casual utterances about quotations therefore have importance and relevance. And while Pound's remarks about the sounds of language and the nature of speech are often included in discussions focussed on other aspects of The Cantos, the information is usually considered only as it relates to those other interests: language and sexuality; economics; epic; intertextuality; explanation for semi-phonetic transcriptions, etc.
There is no serious or thorough examination of his views of viva voce in relation to his major work. And no study situating his views in context with other theories about oral literature. While Max Nanny's work comes closest, it does not take into account 10 Drinking the Tone of Things modern theories of oral literature and discourse; nor does it deal with the textual features of quotation, and the effects those features have; and finally, it does not include the specific relationships between quotations and orality.
The question of quotation in The Cantos begins with the first Canto, even though this particular quotational situation and the presentation of the quoted material in this Canto are both relatively simple. In later Cantos, the quoted material and the markings that signal quotation are more various and often more pronounced. With the introduction of Chinese ideograms and Greek text, the material becomes increasingly difficult to interpret, and sometimes difficult even to utter.
Hence the 'Make It New' motto applies to politics and to literature, to cultural economy and to economic thought. That is why The Cantos, the logbook of an ever-shifting exploration, the depository of knowledge and techniques gleaned among Homeric heroes and Confucian emperors, presents such a formidable obstacle to our reading-habits; the sight of the blocks of quotations culled from obscure textbooks and heaped rather haphazardly on the page to form a superb erratic chaos is at times utterly bewildering.
The process is often considered obfuscatory, confusing, or unintelligible — "debris. While many critics sought some order in the tangled web, others, like Reed Dasenbrock, abandoned the question of order and would have readers "glory in the chaos," for example For other critics, however, Pound's approach results in an epic: It is his development, his variation, his selection which constitutes his magic.
He is an adapter, an arranger, eventually a commentator. Occasionally the result is extraordinary, achieving effects not present in the original source at all. His epic is intended to be a combination of everything he considers worth borrowing from the storehouse of the past; it might aptly be called an epic writer's epic. Earle Davis 28 In this school of thought, Pound's epic would serve as a foundation and root source for the epics of other poets, in the same way that Homer's epic has provided subsequent generations of poets, including Pound, with the foundations for epics of their own.
The net effect, of course, is quite different, since Homer's epic is woven of a series of related strands out of more-or-less one culture, whereas Pound's is woven out of the strands of many cultures, with the various strands brought into and leaving the braid at different points, and still remaining connected to their original sources.
Paleolithic Media: Deep Time and Ezra Pound’s Methods
If Pound is indeed very aware of the theoretical ramifications of his aesthetic decisions, up to the point of integrating the aesthetic statement to the poem both in the conceptual import of its statements and in the formal experiments it evidences, it seems that he is also working towards the definition of a politics of aesthetics. This aesthetics should not be understood as the perverse commandeering of politics by a will to art, by the consideration of the people qua work of art. If the reader is fond of analogy, aesthetics can be understood in a Kantian sense—re-examined perhaps by Foucault—a the system of a priori forms determining what presents itself to sense experience. It could very well point at the surprising convergence of the expressive modes of modernist impersonality, and the fascistic tendencies to erase the moral demands of individual integrity. In Pound, Fascism emerges at the end of a whole process of utopian disillusionment in the possibilities of enforcing an anti-capitalistic economy in a sophisticated civilization, respectful of the grandeur of the past yet adapted to the advances of modernity, so that it is probably the most visible and reprehensible facet of a more general interlocking of politics and aesthetics. This balancing of diverse political and esthetic drives was a project with which both Marinetti and Pound were involved. Barnes,
The essay is credited with developing an insightful interpretation of the role technological reproduction plays in shaping aesthetic experience; more specifically, Benjamin catalogues the significant effects of film and photography on the decline of autonomous aesthetic experience. This publication appeared in French translation under the direction of Raymond Aron in volume 5, no. Benjamin subsequently rewrote the essay and after editorial work by Theodore and Margarethe Adorno it was posthumously published in its commonly recognized form in his Schriften of Wolin In order to catalogue and ultimately subvert classical and Romantic aesthetic ideals, Benjamin describes the process by which modern technological reproduction strips these institutions and their iconic artworks of their aesthetic authority. Benjamin claims that in times past the role of art has been to provide a magical foundation for the cult. A statue or idol conveyed a sense of detached authority, or frightening magical power, which inhered in and only in that particular historical artifact.
Paleolithic Media: Deep Time and Ezra Pound’s Methods
Louis Zukofsky, a modernist American poet with a long career spanning from the s to the s, is known primarily today for his formalist experimentation, which inspired later generations of poets including Robert Creeley and Charles Bernstein. What is less well-known is that his first language was Yiddish, and he grew up imbibing the spirit of the most vibrant period of Yiddish poetry in America. He incorporates free translations from Yiddish literature into his English-language poetry, especially in his early works, and even more interestingly, translates Yiddish poetry that itself incorporates words and stylistics from languages as diverse as Arabic and Japanese. The poem captures the fully incongruent cacophony of voices surrounding the modern American writer.
Home Issues 2 Aesthetics of Theory in the Moder If Pound is indeed very aware of the theoretical ramifications of his aesthetic decisions, up to the point of integrating the aesthetic statement to the poem both in the conceptual import of its statements and in the formal experiments it evidences, it seems that he is also working towards the definition of a politics of aesthetics. This aesthetics should not be understood as the perverse commandeering of politics by a will to art, by the consideration of the people qua work of art. If the reader is fond of analogy, aesthetics can be understood in a Kantian sense—re-examined perhaps by Foucault—a the system of a priori forms determining what presents itself to sense experience.
Подумал Бринкерхофф. Мидж подошла к принтеру и, забрав распечатку очередности задач, попыталась просмотреть ее в темноте. - Ничего не вижу, - пожаловалась. - Включи свет. - Прочитаешь за дверью.
Та показала ему последние строчки текста. Бринкерхофф читал, не веря своим глазам. - Какого чер… В распечатке был список последних тридцати шести файлов, введенных в ТРАНСТЕКСТ. За названием каждого файла следовали четыре цифры - код команды добро, данной программой Сквозь строй. Последний файл в списке таким кодом не сопровождался, вместо этого следовала запись: ФИЛЬТР ОТКЛЮЧЕН ВРУЧНУЮ. Господи Иисусе! - подумал Бринкерхофф.
Где-то в темноте, казалось, прямо над ними, послышались пронзительные гудки. Стратмор повернулся, и Сьюзан сразу же его потеряла.
Echo un poco de Smirnoff? - настаивал бармен. - Плеснуть чуточку водки. - No, gracias.
Сьюзан напряглась как тигрица, защищающая своего детеныша. - Сьюзан, ты же говорила с. Разве Дэвид тебе не объяснил.