oil and gas separator design pdf

Oil And Gas Separator Design Pdf

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The separation of produced fluids is essential once it reaches the surface. This separation is achieved in gravity separators.

Design and capital cost optimisation of three-phase gravity separators

SummaryThis chapter is a discussion of the design, use, functions, capacities, classifications, performance, operation, and maintenance of oil and gas separators. Quality of effluent fluids is approximated. Equations for calculating the sizes and capacities of separators and capacity curves and tables for sizing oil and gas separators are provided.

These capacity curves and tables can be used to estimate capacities of separators as well as to determine the size of separator required to handle given volumes of fluids. Sample calculations for sizing separators are included. Therefore, they are usually sized to handle the highest instantaneous rates of flow. A knockout vessel, drum, or trap may be used to remove only water from the well fluid or to remove all liquid, oil plus water, from the gas. In the case of a water knockout for use near the wellhead, the gas and liquid petroleum are usually discharged together, and the free water is separated and discharged from the bottom of the vessel.

A liquid knockout is used to remove all liquid, oil plus water. The water and liquid hydrocarbons are discharged together from the bottom of the vessel, and the gas is discharged from the top.

A flash chamber trap or vessel normally refers to a conventional oil and gas separator operated at low pressure, with the liquid from a higher-pressure separator being flashed into it. This flash chamber is quite often the second or third stage of separation, with the liquid being discharged from the flash chamber to storage. An expansion vessel is the first-stage separator vessel on a low-temperature or cold-separation unit. This vessel may be equipped with a heating coil to melt hydrates, or a hydrate-preventive liquid such as glycol may be injected into the well fluid just before expansion into this vessel.

A gas scrubber may be similar to an oil and gas separator. Usually it handles fluid that contains less liquid than that produced from oil and gas wells.

Gas scrubbers are normally used in gas gathering, sales, and distribution lines where they are not required to handle slugs or heads of liquid, as is often the case with oil and gas separators. The dry-type gas scrubber uses mist extractors and other internals similar to oil and gas separators.

The wettype gas scrubber passes the stream of gas through a bath of oil or other liquid that washes dust and other impurities from the gas. The gas is flowed through a mist ex-. IntroductionThe term oil and gas separator in oilfield terminology designates a pressure vessel used for separating well fluids produced from oil and gas wells into gaseous and liquid components. A separating vessel may be referred to in the following ways: 1, Oil and gas separator.

Stage separator. Knockout vessel, knockout drum. Flash chamber, flash vessel, or flash trap 7. Expansion separator or expansion vessel. Scrubber gas scrubber.

Filter gas filter. The terms oil and gas separator. These separating vessels are normally used on a producing lease or platform near the wellhead, manifold, or tank battery to separate fluids produced from oil and gas wells into oil and gas or liquid and gas. They must be capable of handling slugs or heads of well. A filtering medium is used in the vessel to remove dust, line scale, rust, and other foreign material from the gas.

Such units will normally remove liquid from the gas. An oil and gas separator generally includes the following essential components and features. Adequate volumetric liquid capacity to handle liq-. Adequate vessel diameter and height or length to allow most of the liquid to separate from the gas so that the mist extractor will not be flooded. A means of controlling an oil level in the separator, which usually includes a liquid-level controller and a diaphragm motor valve on the oil outlet.

A backpressure valve on the gas outlet to maintain a steady pressure in the vessel. Pressure relief devices. In most oil and gas surface production equipment systems, the oil and gas separator is the first vessel the well fluid flows through after it leaves the producing well.

However, other equipment-such as heaters and water knockouts-may be installed upstream of the separator. Well Fluids and Their Characteristics Some of the physical characteristics of well fluids handled by oil and gas separators are briefly outlined in this section. Crude Oil. Crude oil is a complex mixture of hydrocarbons produced in liquid form.

Color varies through shades of green, yellow, brown, and black. Detailed characteristics of crude oils are given in Chap. This is a hydrocarbon that may exist in the producing formation either as a liquid or as a condensible vapor. Liquefaction of gaseous components of the condensate usually occurs with reduction of well-fluid temperature to surface operating conditions. Gravities of the condensed liquids may range from 50 to API and viscosities from 2. Color may be water-white, light yellow, or light blue.

Natural Gas. A gas may be defined as a substance that has no shape or volume of its own. It will completely fill any container in which it is placed and will take the shape of the container. Hydrocarbon gas associated with crude oil is referred to as natural gas and may be found as free gas or as solution gas. Specific gravity of natural gas may vary from 0. Free Gus. Free gas is a hydrocarbon that exists in the gaseous phase at operating pressure and temperature.

Free gas may refer to any gas at any pressure that is not in solution or mechanically held in the liquid hydrocarbon. Solution gas is homogeneously contained in oil at a given pressure and temperature. Condensible Vapors. These hydrocarbons exist as vapor at certain pressures and temperatures and as liquid at other pressures and temperatures. In the vapor phase, they assume the general characteristics of a gas. In the vapor phase.

O , and in viscosity from 0. Primary Functions of Oil and Gas SeparatorsSeparation of oil from gas may begin as the fluid flows through the producing formation into the wellbore and may progressively increase through the tubing, flowlines, and surface handling equipment.

Under certain conditions, the fluid may be completely separated into liquid and gas before it reaches the oil and gas separator. In such cases, the separator vessel affords only an enlargement to permit gas to ascend to one outlet and liquid to descend to another. Removal of Oil From Gas Difference in density of the liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons may accomplish acceptable separation in an oil and gas separator.

However, in some instances, it is necessary to use mechanical devices commonly referred to as mist extractors to remove liquid mist from the gas before it is discharged from the separator. Also, it may be desirable or necessary to use some means to remove nonsolution gas from the oil before the oil is discharged from the separator.

Removal of Gas From Oil The physical and chemical characteristics of the oil and its conditions of pressure and temperature determine the amount of gas it will contain in solution. The rate at which the gas is liberated from a given oil is a function of change in pressure and temperature. The volume of gas that an oil and gas separator will remove from crude oil is dependent on 1 physical and chemical characteristics of the crude, 2 operating pressure, 3 operating temperature, 4 rate of throughput, 5 size and configuration of the separator, and 6 other factors.

Rate of throu. Log in Get Started. See Full Reader. Download for free Report this document. Embed Size px x x x x Vernon Smith, Meridian Corp. The gas is flowed through a mist ex- IntroductionThe term oil and gas separator in oilfield terminology designates a pressure vessel used for separating well fluids produced from oil and gas wells into gaseous and liquid components.

3-Phase Separator Design Basics (With PDF)

The term separator in oilfield terminology designates a pressure vessel used for separating well fluids produced from oil and gas wells into gaseous and liquid components. A separator for petroleum production is a large vessel designed to separate production fluids into their constituent components of oil , gas and water. A separating vessel may be referred to in the following ways: Oil and gas separator , Separator , Stage separator , Trap , Knockout vessel Knockout drum, knockout trap, water knockout, or liquid knockout , Flash chamber flash vessel or flash trap , Expansion separator or expansion vessel , Scrubber gas scrubber , Filter gas filter. These separating vessels are normally used on a producing lease or platform near the wellhead, manifold, or tank battery to separate fluids produced from oil and gas wells into oil and gas or liquid and gas. An oil and gas separator generally includes the following essential components and features:.

Design and capital cost optimisation of three-phase gravity separators

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Separator (oil production)

The selection of Division 1 or Division 2 shall be based on both design and economic considerations. The use of the Code shall be limited to the following pressure such as:. If any of the following conditions apply, the vessels should be constructed in accordance with Division 2, unless otherwise specified by the Company.

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Katapodis, Leon. The physical separation of fluids is the most basic and necessary segregation in oil and gas processing. An oil and gas separator is one of the most fundamental pieces of production equipment used. Because of its production equipment used. Because of its front end position in on-stream processing, its performance is vital to the operation of a production facility. Oil and gas separators were one of the first pieces of production equipment introduced in the oil industry. But regardless of this longevity, the separator has not lost any of its original and vital importance in the separation of liquids and gases.

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Specification for Oil and Gas Separators

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