mechanization of agriculture advantages and disadvantages pdf

Mechanization Of Agriculture Advantages And Disadvantages Pdf

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What is Crop Rotation?

Author: John F. In the future, agricultural machines will become data-rich sensing and monitoring systems. Significant challenges will have to be overcome to achieve the level of agricultural productivity necessary to meet the predicted world demand for food, fiber, and fuel in Although agriculture has met significant challenges in the past, targeted increases in productivity by will have to be made in the face of stringent constraints—including limited resources, less skilled labor, and a limited amount of arable land, among others.

The metric used to measure such progress is total factor productivity TFP —the output per unit of total resources used in production. According to some predictions, agricultural output will have to double by GHI, , with simultaneous management of sustainability. This will require increasing TFP from the current level of 1. To reach that goal, we will need significant achievements in all of the factors that impact TFP. Mechanization is one factor that has had a significant effect on TFP since the beginning of modern agriculture.

Mechanized harvesting, for example, was a key factor in increasing cotton production in the last century Figure 1. In the future, mechanization will also have to contribute to better management of inputs, which will be critical to increasing TFP in global production systems that vary widely among crop types and regional economic status.

Figure 1. For example, a scarce, basic resource that will have to be managed much better is water, a critical input in agricultural production. Both the efficiency and effectiveness of water use will have to improve dramatically. Today, approximately 70 percent of withdrawals of fresh water are used for agriculture Postel et al. By , 1. Improving water management will have to be achieved by more efficient irrigation technology and higher efficiencies in whatever technologies farmers are currently using.

In this article, I define the current state of agricultural systems productivity and demonstrate how information and communication technologies ICT are being integrated into agricultural systems. I also describe how the integration of ICT will create opportunities for increasing agricultural-system productivity and influencing productivity beyond the agriculture value chain.

The Impact of Mechanization on Productivity. Agricultural mechanization, one of the great achievements of the 20th century NAE, , was enabled by technologies that created value in agricultural production practices through the more efficient use of labor, the timeliness of operations, and more efficient input management Table 1 with a focus on sustainable, high-productivity systems.

Historically, affordable machinery, which increased capability and standardization and measurably improved productivity, was a key enabler of agricultural mechanization. Figure 2 shows some major developments since the mids by John Deere, a major innovator and developer of machinery technology.

Figure 2. In the 19th century, as our society matured, a great many innovations transformed the face of American agriculture.

Taking advantage of a large labor base and draft animals, farmers had been able to manage reasonable areas of land. This form of agriculture was still practiced in some places until the middle of the 20th century. Early innovations were implements and tools that increased the productivity of draft animals and assisted farmers in preparing land for cultivation, planting and seeding, and managing and harvesting crops.

The origins of the John Deere Company, for example, were based on the steel-surfaced plow developed by its founder. This important innovation increased the productivity of farmers working in the sticky soils of the Midwest.

A major turning point occurred when tractors began to replace draft animals in the early decades of the 20th century. Tractors leveraged a growing oil economy to significantly accelerate agricultural productivity and output. Early harvesting methods had required separate process operations for different implements. These four drivers played out at different rates in different crop production systems, but always led to more efficient systems with lower input costs.

Technological innovations generally increased mechanization by integrating functional processes in a machine or crop production system and by making it possible for a farmer to manage increasingly large areas of land.

Table 1. By the late 20th century, electronically controlled hydraulics and power systems were the enabling technologies for improving machine performance and productivity. With an electronically addressable machine architecture, coupled with public access to global navigation satellite system GNSS technology in the mids, mechanization in the last 20 years has been focused on leveraging information, automation, and communication to advance ongoing trends in the precision control of agricultural production systems.

In general, advances in machine system automation have increased productivity, increased convenience, and reduced skilled labor requirements for complex tasks. Moreover, benefits have been achieved in an economical way and increased overall TFP.

What was once a highly mechanical system is becoming a dynamic cyber-physical system CPS that combines the cyber, or digital, domain with the physical domain. Precision agriculture, or precision farming, is a systems approach for site-specific management of crop production systems. The foundation of precision farming rests on geospatial data techniques for improving the management of inputs and documenting production outputs. As the size of farm implements and machines increased, farmers were able to manage larger land areas.

At first, these large machines typically used the same control levels across the width of the implement, even though this was not always best for specific portions of the landscape that might have different spatial and other characteristics Sevila and Blackmore, A key technology enabler for precision farming resulted from the public availability of GNSS, a technology that emerged in the mids.

GNSS provided meter, and eventually decimeter, accuracy for mapping yields and moisture content. A number of ICT approaches were enabled by precision agriculture, but generally, its success is attributable to the design of machinery with the capacity for variable-rate applications.

Examples include precision planters, sprayers, fertilizer applicators, and tillage instruments. The predominant control strategies for these systems are based on management maps developed by farmers and their crop consultants. Typically, mapping is done using a geographic information system GIS , based on characteristics of crops, landscape, and prior harvest operations. Sources of data for site-specific maps can be satellite imaging, aerial remote sensing, GIS mapping, field mapping, and derivatives of these technologies.

Some novel concepts being explored suggest that management strategies can be derived from a combination of geospatial terrain characteristics and sensed information Hendrickson, All of these systems are enabled by ICT. A competitive technology for map-based precision farming is on-the-go sensing systems, based on the concept of machine-based sensing of agronomic properties plant health, soil properties, presence of disease or weeds, etc.

The immediate use of these data drives control systems for variable-rate applications. These sensor capabilities essentially turn the agricultural vehicle into a mobile recording system of crop attributes measured across the landscape. In fact, current production platforms are increasingly becoming tools for value-added applications through ICT. Around the turn of the 21st century, GNSS technology had become so precise and accurate that it had outpaced the requirement for the early phases of precision farming and become commercially viable for enabling a number of automatic-guidance applications Han et al.

Advances in GNSS technologies include decimeter to centimeter accuracy by using signals from a geospatially known reference point to correct satellite signals.

One premium example is a real-time kine-matic global positioning system RTK-GPS technology Figure 3a that reduces fatigue and lowers the skill level required to achieve high-performance accuracy in field operations. Figure 3. In short, in less than 20 years, GPS technology went from being an emergent technology to a robust, mature technology that has optimal capabilities for production agriculture. A number of solutions are emerging today Figure 3a for achieving high-precision accuracy through various reference-signal configurations e.

Operator-guidance aids that provide feedback to the operator about required steering corrections through audio and visual cues were the first systems on the market for precision guidance. This feature allowed a vehicle system to follow paths parallel to prior operations across a field. These types of systems worked well at decimeter accuracy and required no major control-system integration into the vehicle. The decrease in overlap meant the parsimonious use of resources.

The decrease in underlap meant that chemicals and fertilizers were applied to every part of the field. On the next level of evolution, automatic guidance systems appeared that managed steering for an operator through automatic control. Automatic guidance systems enabled precision operations depending on the type of GNSS signal and how it was integrated into the requirements of the agricultural operations.

GNSS technology enabled the management of inputs such as seed, pesticides, and fertilizers with precision across the field. For example, the chemical application to buffer zones and grassy waterways was reduced based on sensing of the field location of these features.

GNSS technology provided the reference signal that enabled accurate vehicle location at the GNSS sensor, but precision control of the machine required several additions to the system e.

With these features, a mobile CPS could correct the attitude of the vehicle on uneven terrain and manage the vehicle system path for precision in the execution of complex functions. The ultimate in un-manned automation is the capability of driving complete field patterns under autonomous management of the tractor-implement functions without frequent operator intervention.

Figure 3c shows one commercial example of the execution of this concept. The figure shows a very rudimentary form of path planning, integrated with automatic guidance, that can increase productivity by managing the paths a vehicle must follow. Path management can be programmed to reduce time loss caused by navigation e. Like precision agriculture, precision guidance creates data from its precision operations that could be used in crop management.

The data can then be used to meet the needs of other ICT in systems automation and optimization. Until recently, automation has been focused on functions that depend on GNSS or direct sensing. However, processes that lend themselves to control based on the attributes of soil and crop properties are also being investigated. Some initial applications of these, which were coupled with GPS, mapped the yield and moisture of harvested crop operations. It is also possible to use sensing of soil or crop properties—such as controlling the cut-length of a self-propelled forage harvester SPFH —as part of a combination of techniques to increase machine system productivity.

In this example, the cut-length is the section length into which a tree, or forage plant, is cut. When an SPFH is operated with static cutting settings, independent of the size of the forage plant, it can consume a significant amount of energy in cutting forage for ensiling storage in silos.

This control strategy can significantly reduce the energy consumption for harvesting forage with no degradation in the ensiling process. The results are a significant reduction in fuel consumption in the harvest operation and a high-quality cut, which enables proper forage preservation. NIR sensing has often been used in the laboratory and in grain processing and storage to measure properties e. As these technologies mature, ICT has the potential to connect information about constituent properties to downstream processes.

The automation methods described above generate massive amounts of data. However, the data are not limited to on-vehicle storage or even to on-the-go decision making. Inter-machine communication greatly increases the potential of these systems. In the last few years, the commercial application of telematics devices on machines has been increasing in agriculture, thus empowering a closer connection between farmers and dealers in managing machine uptime and maintenance services. Other applications for machine communication systems include fleet and asset management.

In addition, inter-machine communications are expanding machine system data applications, such as diagnosing and prognosticating machine health. Inter-machine communications can also include implements and tools e. Functionally, a modern, high-end agricultural machine system is effectively a mobile, geospatial data-collection platform with the capacity to receive, use, sense, store, and transmit data as an integral part of its operational performance.

What is Monoculture?

Manufacturing is the largest sector in the U. Although factory employment has decreased over the years, the U. Thanks to mass production, the U. Manufacturers understand the importance of mass production. Mass production has enabled the country to grow and is part of other important sectors in the economy such as transportation and retail. However, there are also disadvantages that come with the effects of mass production. Mass production refers to the manufacturing of large quantities of products using efficient methods.

Crop rotation is an ancient farming practice that has been used by farmers since the BC Centuries. Crop rotation is defined as the intentional planting of different types of crops in different parts of the field and at different seasons in a sequential manner. It also entails not choosing to plant anything at all in a given season and allow the land to rejuvenate while bare until the next season. In crop rotation, one can also incorporate livestock in the practice when the land is left bare for a season of grazing. In the very early years, farmers used to practice crop rotation, but they had no idea of the scientific reasons behind the success of the practice, nor did they have the specific term for the practice. Typically, they did it because of the seasonal calendar of the planting of crops, which was set traditionally as a planting pattern. Here are some of the known advantages and disadvantages of crop rotation.

Image: Mechanization in office — Advantages and Disadvantages. The work performed with the help of machine is generally more neat and legible than the work completed by hand. Therefore, the using of machines ensures the quality of work. Only labor and time saving machines are used in an office. Therefore, the wage bill may be reduced and produce more work.

19702382 Mechanization of Agriculture Advantages and Disadvantages

After decades of neglect, agricultural mechanisation is back on the development agenda in Africa. Taking the mechanisation efforts of Ghana as an example, this paper analyses the governance challenges involved in government and private sector efforts to promote mechanisation in smallholder-based farming systems. To identify these governance challenges, this paper develops a conceptual framework that combines the agricultural innovation system approach with the concepts of New Institutional Economics. The results show that next to well-known problems such as market failures concerning access to spare-parts supplies and credit, mechanisation is constrained by missing institutions, particularly those that would be required to ensure adequate skill development of tractor-operators and technicians. In addition, exchange rate fluctuations and impeding customs practices prevent stronger private sector involvement in mechanisation.

The neglected governance challenges of agricultural mechanisation in Africa – insights from Ghana

What are the advantages of monoculture farming?

Farming is one of our oldest occupations. The success rate of being able to cultivate nutritious food has always affected our quality of life. We all probably carry the genes of our ancestors from the Stone Age who have started to settle down and cultivate the first crops instead of foraging for seasonal foods only. That is when in the second half of the last century, large-scale, intensive farming methods appeared. And they seemed to be the ultimate solution to maximizing agricultural production from cultivated lands by narrowing down the focus on high-yielding varieties or breeds that prospered the most in local conditions.

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