Touring Cultures Transformations Of Travel And Theory Pdf
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- Epub Touring Cultures Transformations Of Travel And Theory 1997
- Touring Cultures by Urry and Rojek (book)
- Touring Cultures by Urry and Rojek (book)
It is becoming ever clearer that while people tour cultures, cultures and objects themselves are in a constant state of migration. This collection brings together some of the most influential writers in the field to examine the complex connections between tourism and cultural change and the relevance of tourist experience to current theoretical debates on space, time and identity.
Epub Touring Cultures Transformations Of Travel And Theory 1997
It considers the social and cultural contexts in which our decisions to travel and our mental maps of tourism and the outside world are situated and how these provide the basis for making sense of tourist activity. The theoretical discussion is backed by more contextualised studies of the growth of cultural tourism, the performativity of tourist-related work, the heritage industry in sites on the margin and the role of the photo in the construction of the tourist experience.
These studies give an insight into some of the most practical ways in which tourist sensibility is produced and maintained, not only at the level of actual tourist experience but also in the tourist sign economy and the cultural images of escape, freedom and relaxation. In this book, Rojek and Urry bring together some of the best-respected writers in the field to provide us with an original and stimulating contribution to the sociological exploration of tourism, travel, culture and visual representation.
No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilized in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publishers.
T Shirts 67 8. This book draws on the expansion of social science interest in mobility, in the mobility of peoples, cultures and objects. It is now clear that people tour cultures; and that cultures and objects themselves travel. It is this two-fold aspect that will be jointly addressed in the chapters that follow. Is there such an entity? Does the term serve to demarcate a usefully distinct sphere of social practice? Where does tourism end and leisure or culture or hobbying and strolling begin?
This book is based on the view that tourism is a term waiting to be deconstructed. Or as Marx might have said it is a chaotic conception, including within it too wide a range of disparate phenomena Marx It embraces so many different notions that it is hardly useful as a term of social science, although this is paradoxical since Tourism Studies is currently being rapidly institutionalised within much of the academy. There are many of these, including travel, day-tripping, culture, excursion, voyaging and exploration.
He brings out that in the case of many different literary and academic writers during the nineteenth century the meaning of each term continuously slides under that of its other. And yet at the same time it is believed by both the academy and the wider public that tourism does in fact possess a self-evident essence. Yet interestingly this desire for contrast and escape is increasingly freighted with worries that the impetus for tourism is itself destroying the possibility of tourism. Moreover, once they are so described they can then be explained through the use of conventional social science methodology, especially survey-type analysis Krippendorf Crawshaw and Urry discuss how this produces a definite narrative and interpellation of the individual subject as a tourist in a particular place, engaging in apparently touristic activities see Chapter 9.
One response to those who point to the problematic nature of tourism as a theoretical category is to seek to operationalise it. For example, tourism is often defined as involving stays of more than four nights and less than one year. But the problem with this is that it ignores whether these stays have in any sense the same significance to visitors.
If they do not, then the investigator is placing together in one operational category quite different social practices, some of which might be merely that of weekly commuting. In what follows we shall presume that the variety of meanings is part of what we are seeking to identify and to explain. So while the collecting and analysis of the flows of visitors within and between countries, including the number of nights that they stay and so on, is crucially important data, we will not seek to reduce the tourism phenomenon to such an operational definition.
Rather we will be concerned with unpacking the orientations that people bring with them when they engage in tourist activity and also with tracing some of the mythologies of escape involved when people go touring or dream of touring. Another response to the problematic character of tourism is deliberately to abstract most of the important issues of social and cultural practice and only consider tourism as a set of economic activities. Questions of taste, fashion and identity would thus be viewed as exogenous to the system.
Tourism on this account is treated as a set of economic factors, and individuals are viewed as bundles of given preferences. This is the standard treatment of tourism in the main textbooks although less so in Shaw and Williams Again, the economic analysis of tourism provides crucial information for understanding the phenomenon.
But it is limited. The number of hotels built in Berlin since the destruction of the Wall, or the average tourist expenditure by British tourists in Greece, tell us very little about the diverse qualities of tourist experience.
In addition they carry the danger of reifying tourist experience so that thinking about tourism and developing tourist policy simply become a matter of reading and seeking to manipulate economic indicators. Touring Cultures, by contrast, is premised upon the rejection of both positivist operationalisation and the strategy of economic abstraction.
And we will engage with the diverse meanings actors attribute, intentionally or otherwise, to the activities which are conventionally deemed to be part of tourism. As we have argued elsewhere, during organised capitalism, tourism and culture were relatively distinct social practices in both time and space Rojek ; Urry a , so it was a reasonable tactical move to presume that they could be analysed separately from each other.
There was differentiation of social practices, each presupposing their own modes of judgement, hierarchy and authority. Tourism as practice and discourse involved clear specification in time the week and the fortnight and space the specialised resorts and spas.
It particularly involved the centrality of clock-time to its organisation. This was seen not only in the week being the key time- period but also the significance of fixed mealtimes, high levels of time-space synchronisation, and a remarkable degree of time surveillance see Urry b.
All of this presumed a clear boundary between tourism and culture; a grid-like distinction between the two. This grid-like construction of life was not without criticism and resistance.
Criticism and dissent were often expressed in political forms. But these movements rejected the existing order of things in order to achieve a qualitatively superior state of affairs. But despite the erosive effect of Modernity 2 on the dominant order of things, Modernity 1 proved remarkably resilient. Tourism and culture now plainly overlap and there is no clear frontier between the two.
They cannot be kept apart. The old colonial metropolis is having to come to terms with post-colonial conditions. As Lury demonstrates, both objects and people are increasingly mobile, and such mobilities are culturally encoded see Chapter 4 below; Clifford ; as well as the literature on post-colonialism. The diffusion of peoples between cultures can no longer be understood through the employment of conventional notions of control and resistance. Instead, the notion of hybridity which brings to mind the organic binding of different cultural conventions and symbols is more appropriate.
For example, the Irish Americans in the US have evolved a hybrid culture which is neither purely American nor Irish, yet is clearly indebted to both; the same is true of British Afro-Caribbeans and British Asians. Hybridity moreover exposes the conventional division between home and abroad as over-simplistic. One does not simply see more of the world by engaging in these forms of tourist activities, one also accepts the invitation to become a better person.
Culturisation can also be seen in the increasing significance of signs to the design and marketing of tourism sites. Various commentators have demonstrated that tourist practices do not simply entail the purchase of specific goods and services but involve the consumption of signs. Tourists are semioticians see Culler ; MacCannell And with the extraordinary proliferation of images and signs in the last few decades, this economy of signs has swept across and overwhelmed the signs typically consumed by the traveller while away, as Rojek discusses through the concepts of indexing and dragging Chapter 3.
And the signs derived from travel are routinely produced and circulated by all sorts of other culture industries. Indeed, as Rojek discusses, people are beginning to discuss the whole idea of virtual travel or cyber-tourism.
Most tourism research has not sufficiently recognised these developments—although it has of course noticed the marketing and economic opportunities of cultural tourism see Taylor ; Morris ; and Craik in Chapter 6, for recent exceptions to this criticism. Crang partly attempts to redress the balance by demonstrating the performative character of many kinds of tourism employment; and thus to show how the labour undertaken involves the mobilisation of culturally meaningful selves.
However, he also demonstrates that this is very varied in its impact, depending upon the social definition of the settings; the spatial and temporal structuring and uses of those settings; the materials through which product provision is organised; and the identity politics played out through the interactions between employees and tourists Chapter 7 below; Crang In the rest of this chapter we will consider some recent debates and theories relating certain of these claims, to tourism and the variety of human senses involved in the appreciation of place; to how cultures and objects and not just people travel or tour; and to the gendered nature of cultures and tourism practices and metaphors.
There is a brief conclusion. But such a claim about the timed and spaced character of social phenomena forces us to confront how and in what ways we sense such phenomena. What senses are involved in the perception, interpretation, appreciation and denigration of other spaces? How do we sense what other places are like? How do senses work across space? How are other times remembered? Which senses predominate in different historical periods? Are there hierarchies of value between the different senses?
These are immensely complex issues relating to the history of Western philosophy and its particular fascination with the eye as the mirror of nature Rorty In the history of the West, sight has been typically taken as the noblest of the senses.
Observation came to be regarded as the only sure basis of scientific legitimacy. But in the twentieth century the denigration of the central role of the visual has developed, especially within French social thought.
Jay brings this out in his interrogations of Sartre, Derrida, Irigaray, Debord and especially Foucault. Such writers particularly bring out the complicitous role of vision in the mundane operations of power and control—it is no longer simply the source of enlightenment and science. To some extent these debates parallel discussions in the s and s.
Kracauer —74 presented tourism as the organised bombardment of the senses. He argued that the commercialisation of tourism no longer enables people to savour the sensation of foreign places. Tourism no longer involves capturing a long-imagined sight.
He read voraciously on all things Roman; he pored over the history and street plans of the city; he studied engravings of the significant buildings, and he collected woodcuts, plaster casts, etchings and cork models. For Kracauer even the tourist of the inter-war period was no longer like that. Rather, tourist senses are attuned to the pleasures of variety and oscillation.
He writes that More and more travel is becoming the incomparable occasion to be somewhere other than the very place one habitually is.
Touring Cultures by Urry and Rojek (book)
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Touring Cultures by Urry and Rojek (book)
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