Early Middle And Late Stages Of Adolescence Pdf
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- Understanding Adolescence 3: The Tasks
- Stages of Growth Child Development
- Stages of Adolescence
- Middle to Late Adolescence (ages 15 to 22): The Age of Romance
Understanding Adolescence 3: The Tasks
As discussed at the beginning of this chapter, developmental psychologists often divide our development into three areas: physical development, cognitive development, and psychosocial development. We will discuss prenatal, infant, child, adolescent, and adult development. How did you come to be who you are? From beginning as a one-cell structure to your birth, your prenatal development occurred in an orderly and delicate sequence.
There are three stages of prenatal development: germinal, embryonic, and fetal. In the discussion of biopsychology earlier in the book, you learned about genetics and DNA. Conception occurs when sperm fertilizes an egg and forms a zygote [link]. A zygote begins as a one-cell structure that is created when a sperm and egg merge. The genetic makeup and sex of the baby are set at this point. During the first week after conception, the zygote divides and multiplies, going from a one-cell structure to two cells, then four cells, then eight cells, and so on.
This process of cell division is called mitosis. Mitosis is a fragile process, and fewer than one-half of all zygotes survive beyond the first two weeks Hall, After 5 days of mitosis there are cells, and after 9 months there are billions of cells. As the cells divide, they become more specialized, forming different organs and body parts. Once it does, the next stage begins.
After the zygote divides for about 7—10 days and has cells, it travels down the fallopian tubes and implants itself in the lining of the uterus. Upon implantation, this multi-cellular organism is called an embryo. Now blood vessels grow, forming the placenta.
The placenta is a structure connected to the uterus that provides nourishment and oxygen from the mother to the developing embryo via the umbilical cord. Basic structures of the embryo start to develop into areas that will become the head, chest, and abdomen. During the embryonic stage, the heart begins to beat and organs form and begin to function.
The neural tube forms along the back of the embryo, developing into the spinal cord and brain. When the organism is about nine weeks old, the embryo is called a fetus.
From 9—12 weeks, the sex organs begin to differentiate. At about 16 weeks, the fetus is approximately 4. Fingers and toes are fully developed, and fingerprints are visible. By the time the fetus reaches the sixth month of development 24 weeks , it weighs up to 1. Hearing has developed, so the fetus can respond to sounds. Throughout the fetal stage the brain continues to grow and develop, nearly doubling in size from weeks 16 to Around 36 weeks, the fetus is almost ready for birth.
It weighs about 6 pounds and is about The fetus continues to gain weight and grow in length until approximately 40 weeks. By then, the fetus has very little room to move around and birth becomes imminent. The progression through the stages is shown in [link]. During each prenatal stage, genetic and environmental factors can affect development.
The developing fetus is completely dependent on the mother for life. It is important that the mother takes good care of herself and receives prenatal care , which is medical care during pregnancy that monitors the health of both the mother and the fetus [link]. According to the National Institutes of Health [NIH], , routine prenatal care is important because it can reduce the risk of complications to the mother and fetus during pregnancy. In fact, women who are trying to become pregnant or who may become pregnant should discuss pregnancy planning with their doctor.
They may be advised, for example, to take a vitamin containing folic acid, which helps prevent certain birth defects, or to monitor aspects of their diet or exercise routines. A pregnant woman receives an ultrasound as part of her prenatal care. The placenta provides nourishment and oxygen to the fetus. A teratogen is any environmental agent—biological, chemical, or physical—that causes damage to the developing embryo or fetus.
There are different types of teratogens. Alcohol and most drugs cross the placenta and affect the fetus. Alcohol is not safe to drink in any amount during pregnancy. Excessive maternal drinking while pregnant can cause fetal alcohol spectrum disorders with life-long consequences for the child ranging in severity from minor to major [link].
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders FASD are a collection of birth defects associated with heavy consumption of alcohol during pregnancy. Physically, children with FASD may have a small head size and abnormal facial features. Cognitively, these children may have poor judgment, poor impulse control, higher rates of ADHD, learning issues, and lower IQ scores. These developmental problems and delays persist into adulthood Streissguth et al.
Smoking is also considered a teratogen because nicotine travels through the placenta to the fetus. When the mother smokes, the developing baby experiences a reduction in blood oxygen levels. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , smoking while pregnant can result in premature birth, low-birth-weight infants, stillbirth, and sudden infant death syndrome SIDS.
Heroin, cocaine, methamphetamine, almost all prescription medicines, and most over-the counter medications are also considered teratogens. Babies born with a heroin addiction need heroin just like an adult addict. The child will need to be gradually weaned from the heroin under medical supervision; otherwise, the child could have seizures and die. Other teratogens include radiation, viruses such as HIV and herpes, and rubella German measles.
Women in the United States are much less likely to be afflicted with rubella because most women received childhood immunizations or vaccinations that protect the body from disease. Each organ of the fetus develops during a specific period in the pregnancy, called the critical or sensitive period [link].
For example, research with primate models of FASD has demonstrated that the time during which a developing fetus is exposed to alcohol can dramatically affect the appearance of facial characteristics associated with fetal alcohol syndrome.
As you now know, women who use drugs or alcohol during pregnancy can cause serious lifelong harm to their child. This policy was tried in Charleston, South Carolina, as recently as 20 years ago. The Interagency Policy applied to patients attending the obstetrics clinic at MUSC, which primarily serves patients who are indigent or on Medicaid.
It did not apply to private obstetrical patients. The policy required patient education about the harmful effects of substance abuse during pregnancy. This policy seemed to deter women from seeking prenatal care, deterred them from seeking other social services, and was applied solely to low-income women, resulting in lawsuits. The program was canceled after 5 years, during which 42 women were arrested.
A federal agency later determined that the program involved human experimentation without the approval and oversight of an institutional review board IRB. What were the flaws in the program and how would you correct them? What are the ethical implications of charging pregnant women with child abuse? The average newborn weighs approximately 7. Although small, a newborn is not completely helpless because his reflexes and sensory capacities help him interact with the environment from the moment of birth.
All healthy babies are born with newborn reflexes : inborn automatic responses to particular forms of stimulation. Reflexes help the newborn survive until it is capable of more complex behaviors—these reflexes are crucial to survival.
They are present in babies whose brains are developing normally and usually disappear around 4—5 months old. The sucking reflex is the automatic, unlearned, sucking motions that infants do with their mouths. Several other interesting newborn reflexes can be observed. The baby spreads her arms, pulls them back in, and then usually cries. How do you think these reflexes promote survival in the first months of life? Take a few minutes to view this brief video clip illustrating several newborn reflexes.
What can young infants see, hear, and smell? Although vision is their least developed sense, newborns already show a preference for faces. Newborns also have a strong sense of smell.
For instance, newborn babies can distinguish the smell of their own mother from that of others. In a study by MacFarlane , 1-week-old babies who were being breastfed were placed between two gauze pads. By 2 years old the weight will have quadrupled, so we can expect that a 2 year old should weigh between 20 and 40 pounds.
The average length of a newborn is Children experience rapid physical changes through infancy and early childhood. Growth slows between 4 and 6 years old: During this time children gain 5—7 pounds and grow about 2—3 inches per year. Once girls reach 8—9 years old, their growth rate outpaces that of boys due to a pubertal growth spurt. This growth spurt continues until around 12 years old, coinciding with the start of the menstrual cycle. By 10 years old, the average girl weighs 88 pounds, and the average boy weighs 85 pounds.
However, the nervous system continues to grow and develop. Each neural pathway forms thousands of new connections during infancy and toddlerhood. This period of rapid neural growth is called blooming.
Neural pathways continue to develop through puberty. The blooming period of neural growth is then followed by a period of pruning, where neural connections are reduced. It is thought that pruning causes the brain to function more efficiently, allowing for mastery of more complex skills Hutchinson,
Stages of Growth Child Development
Children ages 6 to 12, usually think in concrete ways concrete operations. This can include things like how to combine, separate, order, and transform objects and actions. Adolescence marks the beginning development of more complex thinking processes also called formal logical operations. This time can include abstract thinking the ability to form their own new ideas or questions. It can also include the ability to consider many points of view and compare or debate ideas or opinions. It can also include the ability to consider the process of thinking. During adolescence between 12 and 18 years of age , the developing teenager gains the ability to think systematically about all logical relationships within a problem.
interests, there are also numerous developmental issues that just about every teen faces during the early, middle and late adolescent years (AACAP, ).
Stages of Adolescence
Adolescence is defined as the years between the onset of puberty and the beginning of adulthood. In the past, when people were likely to marry in their early 20s or younger, this period might have lasted only 10 years or less—starting roughly between ages 12 and 13 and ending by age 20, at which time the child got a job or went to work on the family farm, married, and started his or her own family. Today, children mature more slowly, move away from home at later ages, and maintain ties with their parents longer. For instance, children may go away to college but still receive financial support from parents, and they may come home on weekends or even to live for extended time periods. Thus the period between puberty and adulthood may well last into the late 20s, merging into adulthood itself.
Middle to Late Adolescence (ages 15 to 22): The Age of Romance
Here we learn about adolescent cognitive development. In adolescence, changes in the brain interact with experience, knowledge, and social demands and produce rapid cognitive growth. The changes in how adolescents think, reason, and understand can be even more dramatic than their obvious physical changes. This stage of cognitive development, termed by Piaget as the formal operational stage, marks a movement from the ability to think and reason logically only about concrete, visible events to an ability to also think logically about abstract concepts. Adolescents are now able to analyze situations logically in terms of cause and effect and to entertain hypothetical situations and entertain what-if possibilities about the world. This higher-level thinking allows them to think about the future, evaluate alternatives, and set personal goals. Although there are marked individual differences in cognitive development among teens, these new capacities allow adolescents to engage in the kind of introspection and mature decision making that was previously beyond their cognitive capacity.
Definitions of stages of growth in childhood come from many sources. Theorists such as Jean Piaget, Lev Vygotsky, Lawrence Kohlberg, and Erik Erikson have provided ways to understand development, and recent research has provided important information regarding the nature of development. In addition, stages of childhood are defined culturally by the social institutions, customs, and laws that make up a society. For example, while researchers and professionals usually define the period of early childhood as birth to eight years of age, others in the United States might consider age five a better end point because it coincides with entry into the cultural practice of formal schooling. There are three broad stages of development: early childhood, middle childhood, and adolescence. The definitions of these stages are organized around the primary tasks of development in each stage, though the boundaries of these stages are malleable.
As discussed at the beginning of this chapter, developmental psychologists often divide our development into three areas: physical development, cognitive development, and psychosocial development. We will discuss prenatal, infant, child, adolescent, and adult development. How did you come to be who you are?
This large-scale cross-sectional study had the aim to investigate whether adolescent males and females differ in self-perceived self-regulation. Results revealed clear sex differences in the self-regulation as perceived by mid-adolescents i. Our findings offer important new insights with respect to the decision making, academic achievements and behaviour of year olds.
As a another year or so goes by, when teens are approximately years old, they become more interested in developing romantic relationships with partners. These relationships can be explosive and short-lived, or they can become long-term monogamous relationships. However, guys and girls at this age tend to view romance quite differently. Girls tend to be more concerned about the biological consequences of sexual activity so they may begin to research topics such as reproduction, pregnancy, and contraceptives, and they may ask more questions about these topics.