Developmental Psychology Childhood And Adolescence Pdf
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- Introduction to child psychology
- Developmental psychology
- Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology
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Introduction to child psychology
Advancing Human Assessment pp Cite as. Developmental psychology was a major area of research at ETS from the late s to the early s. This chapter covers research on representational competence; parental influences, migration, and measurement; cognitive, personality, and social development of infants and young children; and cognitive, personality, and social development from infancy to adolescence. For a full understanding of these qualities, it is essential to know how they emerge and evolve.
Hence the work in developmental psychology complemented the efforts already under way in other fields of psychology. Hence, as Lewis n. Other research was done in homes, schools, and hospitals, including a multisite longitudinal study of Head Start participants e. A handful of investigators directed most of the research, each carrying out a distinct program of extensive and influential work.
This chapter covers research by Irving Sigel , on representational competence; Luis Laosa, on parental influences, migration, and measurement; Michael Lewis, on cognitive, personality, and social development of infants and young children; and Jeanne Brooks-Gunn, on cognitive, personality, and social development from infancy to adolescence.
Other important research was conducted by Gordon Hale e. The Kogan and Ward research is included in Kogan, Chap. Roughly defined by Sigel and Saunders , representational competence is the ability to transcend immediate stimulation and to remember relevant past events and project future possibilities. Also indicative of representational competence in preschoolers was the understanding of equivalence in symbol systems, whereby an object could be rendered three-dimensionally in pictorial form and in words.
Earlier research by Sigel and collaborators emphasized ethnicity and socioeconomic status SES ; see Kogan SES was retained in many of the ETS studies in addition to a contrast between typical children and those with communicative—language disabilities. The full model was not implemented in every study, and other relevant variables were not included in the model.
In most studies, family constellation e. In the view of Sigel and his associates, the critical component of parental teaching behavior was distancing Sigel Parental teachings could reflect high- or low-level distancing. By contrast, asking the child to consider possible uses of an object was an example of high-level distancing, for the child was forced to go beyond the overt stimulus properties of the object to adopt new perspectives toward it.
In brief, the concept of distancing, as reflected in parental teaching behavior, referred to the degree of constraint versus openness that the parent imposed on the child. Two tasks were selected of a distinctively different character. The other task required paper folding, with the parent required to teach the child to make a boat or a plane.
We begin with a study of families in which the target child was 4 years of age McGillicuddy-DeLisi ; Sigel Family variables included SES middle vs. For the three-child families, there was variation in the age discrepancy between the first and second sibling more than 3 years apart vs. Each mother and father performed the storytelling and paper-folding tasks with their 4-year-old child. Proper controls were employed for order of task presentations. A total of parent and child observations were coded by six raters with satisfactory interrater reliability.
The presentation of the research was divided into two parts, corresponding to the portion of the analytic model under investigation. In the first part McGillicuddy-DeLisi , the influence of the demographic variables, SES and family constellation, on parental beliefs was examined, and in turn the influence of parental beliefs for their prediction of overt parental behaviors in a teaching situation was explored.
Parental beliefs were assessed in an interview based on 12 vignettes involving a 4-year-old and a mother or father.
The interviewer asked the parent whether the child in the vignette had the necessary concepts or abilities to handle the problem being posed. Analysis of these data yielded 26 parental belief variables that were reliably scored by three coders.
ANOVA was then employed to determine the influence of SES, family constellation, gender of child, and gender of parent on each of the 26 belief variables. Beliefs were found to vary more as a function of SES and family constellation than of gender of parent or child. More specifically, parents of three children had views of child development that differed substantially from those of single-child parents. For the parents of three children, development involved attributes more internal to the child e.
The results as a whole constituted an intriguing mosaic, but they were post hoc in the absence of predictions derived from a theoretical framework. Of course, the exploratory nature of such research reflected the dearth at that time of theoretical development in the study of child-directed parental beliefs and behaviors.
Consider next the observed relationships between parental beliefs and teaching behaviors. To answer the question, stepwise regressions were carried out with SES and family constellation entered into the analysis first, followed by the belief variables.
Demonstration of belief effects on teaching behaviors would require that multiple correlations show significant increments in magnitude when beliefs were entered into the regression analysis. Noteworthy is the evidence that the significant beliefs varied across the two tasks and that this variation was greater for mothers than for fathers. In other words, mothers appeared to be more sensitive to the properties of the task facing the child, whereas fathers appeared to have internalized a set of beliefs generally applied to different kinds of tasks.
Thus far, we have considered the relations among family demographics, parental beliefs, and teaching strategies. These latter tasks included Piagetian conservation and imagery assessments and the Sigel Object Categorization Task Sigel and Olmsted To address this hypothesis, stepwise regressions were analyzed.
This general observation, however, conceals the specificity of the effects. Thus mothers and fathers employed different teaching strategies, and these strategies, in turn, varied across the storytelling and paper-folding tasks. Doing so in sequence often pointed to the complementarity of parental influences. This result implied that the children could intellectually profit from the different, but complementary, teaching strategies of mothers and fathers.
Sigel and McGillicuddy-DeLisi were able to recruit families who had a child with a communicative disability CD , making it possible to compare such families with those where the child was not communicatively disabled non-CD.
Of course, we must allow for the possibility that the parent was adjusting his or her distancing level to the perceived cognitive ability of the child. Of course, these associations could not address the causality question: The parent might be affecting the child or reacting to the child or, more likely, the influence was proceeding in both directions. Sigel and McGillicuddy-DeLisi argued that low-level distancing strategies by parents discouraged active thinking in the child; hence it was no surprise that such children did not perform well on representational tasks that required such thinking.
They were optimistic about CD children, for high-level parental distancing seemed to encourage the kind of representational thinking that could partially compensate for their communicative disabilities Sigel He also developed a measure of behavioral intentions—a possible mediator of the belief—behavior connection. Although the focus was naturally on parental beliefs and behaviors, similar work in social psychology on the belief and behavior connection e.
The first two categories were assessed with a series of vignettes. Thus, in the vignette for the physical domain, the child asks the parent how to use a yardstick to measure the capacity of their bathtub.
For the third category, the parents taught their child how to tie knots, and the strategies employed in doing so were observed. Note that the knots task involved different content than was used in the vignettes. Parental intended teaching strategies were classified as distancing, rational authoritative e. Parental behavioral strategies were scored for high-level versus low-level distancing. The three variable classes—parental beliefs, parental intended teaching strategies, and parental behavioral strategies—were intercorrelated.
Substantial relationships were observed between parental beliefs about learning cognitive processing vs. As anticipated, cognitive processing was associated with distancing strategies, and direct instruction was linked to authoritative strategies. Of course, both the beliefs and self-referent strategies were derived from the same vignettes used in the parental interview, suggesting the likely influence of method variance on the correlational outcomes.
Sigel attributed the correlational decline to variation across domains. Thus the belief—strategy linkages were not constant across physical, social, and moral problems. Aggregation across these domains could not be justified. Obviously, the shifting task content and context were also responsible for the absence of anticipated linkages. A small number of papers, however, were coauthored with two other investigators, Anthony Pellegrini and Gene Brody, at the University of Georgia.
In the case of marital quality, Brody et al. More specifically, Brody et al. Also under examination was the possibility that mothers and fathers would employ different teaching strategies when interacting with the children, with the nature of such differences possibly contingent on the levels of marital distress. Again, storytelling and paper-folding tasks were used with the mothers and fathers.
Level of marital distress was assessed by the Scale of Marriage Problems Swenson and Fiore , and a median split was used to divide the sample into distressed and nondistressed subgroups. Nondistressed mothers and fathers did not differ on any of the behavioral indices. Mothers in distressed marriages, by contrast, responded with more effective teaching behaviors, inducing more responsive behavior from their children.
Hence the hypothesis of compensatory maternal behaviors in a distressed marriage was supported. The psychological basis for such compensation, however, remained conjectural, with the strong likelihood that mothers were compensating for perceived less-than-satisfactory parenting by their husbands. Finally, Brody et al. In two additional studies Pellegrini et al. Pellegrini et al. Families differed in whether their children were communicatively disabled. Only CD vs. Parental behaviors were more directive and less demanding with CD children.
Thus parents of non-CD children manifested more conversational turns in a presumed effort to elicit more language from their children. Similarly, more parental paraphrasing with non-CD children encouraged departures from the literal text, thereby fostering greater depth of interaction between parent and child.
We turn, finally, to the second study Pellegrini et al. The research paradigm was similar to studies previously described. In addition, the extent of task engagement by the child was also examined. ANOVAs applied to the separate teaching variables indicated that a parents were more directive and less demanding with CD children than with non-CD children; b parents were more demanding, gave less emotional support, and asked fewer questions with the paper-folding task than with the book-reading task; and c communicative status and task variable interacted: A CD versus non-CD difference occurred only for the book-reading task, with parents of CD children asking more questions and making lower cognitive demands.
For the paper-folding task, parents of both CD and non-CD children used high-demand strategies to keep their children engaged. For the book-reading task, parents of CD and non-CD children differed, with the CD parents using less demanding strategies and the non-CD parents using more demanding ones. Adult guidance is the key, with non-CD children requiring considerably less of it to remain engaged with the task than was the case for CD children. In sum, the findings strongly support the Vygotsky model of parents teaching children through the zone of proximal development and the adjustment of parental teaching consistent with the competence level of their children.
Advancing Human Assessment pp Cite as. Developmental psychology was a major area of research at ETS from the late s to the early s. This chapter covers research on representational competence; parental influences, migration, and measurement; cognitive, personality, and social development of infants and young children; and cognitive, personality, and social development from infancy to adolescence. For a full understanding of these qualities, it is essential to know how they emerge and evolve. Hence the work in developmental psychology complemented the efforts already under way in other fields of psychology.
Request PDF | On Jan 1, , David R Shaffer and others published Developmental Psychology: Childhood and Adolescence | Find, read and cite all the.
Self psychology does not have a distinctive developmental theory. This paper discusses some of the methodological problems related to the articulation of such a theory, and goes on to outline a theory of adolescent development that is consistent with the tenets of self psychology. The major points made are: Adolescence does not represent a recapitulation of prior phase of development, the sense of self cohesion is fundamental to a healthy sense of self, and the culmination of the adolescent process is the formation of a nuclear sense of self.
Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology
This section covers all aspects of theory and knowledge in developmental psychology. Topics of interest include, but are not limited to, child development, psychoanalytic and behavioral theories of development. The relationship between parent—child attachment and executive function EF in middle childhood remains relatively poorly studied.
Atypical dorsolateral prefrontal activity in females with conduct disorder during effortful emotion regulation. Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging. Overview of European forensic youth care: towards an integrative mission for prevention and intervention strategies for juvenile offenders. Child and adolescent psychiatry and mental health , 13 1
Developmental psychology is the scientific study of how and why human beings change over the course of their life. Originally concerned with infants and children , the field has expanded to include adolescence , adult development , aging , and the entire lifespan. Developmental psychologists aim to explain how thinking, feeling, and behaviors change throughout life. This field examines change across three major dimensions: physical development , cognitive development , and social emotional development. Developmental psychology examines the influences of nature and nurture on the process of human development, and processes of change in context across time. Many researchers are interested in the interactions among personal characteristics, the individual's behavior, and environmental factors , including the social context and the built environment. Ongoing debates in regards to developmental psychology include biological essentialism vs.
Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology
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