metamorphic rocks a classification and glossary of terms pdf

Metamorphic Rocks A Classification And Glossary Of Terms Pdf

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Next: Start your rock collection. Types of Rocks Rocks are not all the same! The three main types, or classes, of rock are sedimentary , metamorphic , and igneous and the differences among them have to do with how they are formed.

Types of Rocks

A rock is any naturally occurring solid mass or aggregate of minerals or mineraloid matter. It is categorized by the minerals included, its chemical composition and the way in which it is formed. Rocks are usually grouped into three main groups: igneous rocks , sedimentary rocks and metamorphic rocks. Rocks form the Earth's outer solid layer, the crust , and most of its interior, except for the liquid outer core and pockets of magma in the asthenosphere. Igneous rocks are formed when magma cools in the Earth's crust, or lava cools on the ground surface or the seabed. Sedimentary rocks are formed by diagenesis or lithification of sediments , which in turn are formed by the weathering , transport, and deposition of existing rocks. Metamorphic rocks are formed when existing rocks are subjected to such large pressures and temperatures that they are transformed—something that occurs, for example, when continental plates collide.

Metamorphic rocks arise from the transformation of existing rock to new types of rock, in a process called metamorphism. During this process, the rock remains mostly in the solid state, but gradually recrystallizes to a new texture or mineral composition. They may be formed simply by being deeply buried beneath the Earth's surface, where they are subject to high temperatures and the great pressure of the rock layers above. They can also form from tectonic processes such as continental collisions, which cause horizontal pressure, friction and distortion. Metamorphic rock can be formed locally when rock is heated by the intrusion of hot molten rock called magma from the Earth's interior. The study of metamorphic rocks now exposed at the Earth's surface following erosion and uplift provides information about the temperatures and pressures that occur at great depths within the Earth's crust.

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Metamorphic Rocks: A Classification and Glossary of Terms

Home Alpha. Self Tests. First, the Problems. As with igneous and sedimentary rocks, metamorphic rocks are classified on the basis of texture grain size, shape, orientation and mineral composition. However, the classifiction of metamorphic rocks is more difficult to get into than with igneous and sedimentary rocks, for a couple of reasons.

Metamorphic rock , any of a class of rocks that result from the alteration of preexisting rocks in response to changing environmental conditions, such as variations in temperature , pressure , and mechanical stress , and the addition or subtraction of chemical components. The preexisting rocks may be igneous , sedimentary , or other metamorphic rocks. Metamorphism comprises changes both in mineralogy and in the fabric of the original rock. Minerals within the original rock, or protolith, respond to the changing conditions by reacting with one another to produce a new mineral assemblage that is thermodynamically stable under the new pressure-temperature conditions. These reactions occur in the solid state but may be facilitated by the presence of a fluid phase lining the grain boundaries of the minerals.

10.3 Classification of Metamorphic Rocks

Metamorphic rocks are broadly classified as foliated or non-foliated. Non-foliated metamorphic rocks do not have aligned mineral crystals. Non-foliated rocks form when pressure is uniform, or near the surface where pressure is very low. This distinction breaks down in zones of intense deformation, where even minerals like quartz can be squeezed into long stringers, much like squeezing toothpaste out of a tube Figure

Lithostratigraphic units are bodies of rocks, bedded or unbedded, that are defined and characterized on the basis of their lithologic properties and their stratigraphic relations. Lithostratigraphic units are the basic units of geologic mapping. The relationship of lithostratigraphic units to other kinds of stratigraphic units is discussed in Chapter Lithostratigraphy The element of stratigraphy that deals with the description and nomenclature of the rocks of the Earth based on their lithology and their stratigraphic relations.

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Stratigraphic Guide

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