software configuration management concepts pdf

Software Configuration Management Concepts Pdf

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During the s the United States Department of Defense developed a technical management discipline to track changes in the development of complex systems. It gave this system and various iterations very technical names, until in it published a consolidated guidebook that established the technical management system now called configuration management. Today, configuration management is not only used by the defense department, but in software development, IT service management, civil engineering, industrial engineering, and more. In the technology world, configuration management is an IT management process that tracks individual configuration items of an IT system.

Software Configuration Management

Configuration management CM is a systems engineering process for establishing and maintaining consistency of a product's performance, functional, and physical attributes with its requirements, design, and operational information throughout its life. Outside the military, the CM process is also used with IT service management as defined by ITIL , and with other domain models in the civil engineering and other industrial engineering segments such as roads, bridges, canals , dams, and buildings.

CM applied over the life cycle of a system provides visibility and control of its performance, functional, and physical attributes. CM verifies that a system performs as intended, and is identified and documented in sufficient detail to support its projected life cycle. The CM process facilitates orderly management of system information and system changes for such beneficial purposes as to revise capability; improve performance, reliability, or maintainability; extend life; reduce cost; reduce risk and liability; or correct defects.

The relatively minimal cost of implementing CM is returned manyfold in cost avoidance. The lack of CM, or its ineffectual implementation, can be very expensive and sometimes can have such catastrophic consequences such as failure of equipment or loss of life.

CM emphasizes the functional relation between parts, subsystems, and systems for effectively controlling system change.

It helps to verify that proposed changes are systematically considered to minimize adverse effects. Changes to the system are proposed, evaluated, and implemented using a standardized, systematic approach that ensures consistency, and proposed changes are evaluated in terms of their anticipated impact on the entire system.

CM verifies that changes are carried out as prescribed and that documentation of items and systems reflects their true configuration. A complete CM program includes provisions for the storing, tracking, and updating of all system information on a component, subsystem, and system basis. A structured CM program ensures that documentation e.

In many cases, without CM, the documentation exists but is not consistent with the item itself. For this reason, engineers, contractors, and management are frequently forced to develop documentation reflecting the actual status of the item before they can proceed with a change. This reverse engineering process is wasteful in terms of human and other resources and can be minimized or eliminated using CM. Configuration Management originated in the United States Department of Defense in the s as a technical management discipline for hardware material items—and it is now a standard practice in virtually every industry.

The CM process became its own technical discipline sometime in the late s when the DoD developed a series of military standards called the " series" i.

Many of these functions and models have redefined CM from its traditional holistic approach to technical management. Some treat CM as being similar to a librarian activity, and break out change control or change management as a separate or stand alone discipline. CM is the practice of handling changes systematically so that a system maintains its integrity over time.

CM implements the policies, procedures, techniques, and tools that manage, evaluate proposed changes, track the status of changes, and maintain an inventory of system and support documents as the system changes.

CM programs and plans provide technical and administrative direction to the development and implementation of the procedures, functions, services, tools, processes, and resources required to successfully develop and support a complex system.

During system development, CM allows program management to track requirements throughout the life-cycle through acceptance and operations and maintenance.

As changes inevitably occur in the requirements and design, they must be approved and documented, creating an accurate record of the system status. Ideally the CM process is applied throughout the system lifecycle. Most professionals mix up or get confused with Asset management AM , where it inventories the assets on hand. The key difference between CM and AM is that the former does not manage the financial accounting aspect but on service that the system supports.

These disciplines are carried out [ by whom? The five disciplines are:. The software configuration management SCM process is looked upon by practitioners as the best solution to handling changes in software projects. It identifies the functional and physical attributes of software at various points in time, and performs systematic control of changes to the identified attributes for the purpose of maintaining software integrity and traceability throughout the software development life cycle.

The SCM process further defines the need to trace changes, and the ability to verify that the final delivered software has all of the planned enhancements that are supposed to be included in the release. It identifies four procedures that must be defined for each software project to ensure that a sound SCM process is implemented. They are:. CMDBs are used to track Configuration Items CIs and the dependencies between them, where CIs represent the things in an enterprise that are worth tracking and managing, such as but not limited to computers, software, software licenses, racks, network devices, storage, and even the components within such items.

For information assurance , CM can be defined as the management of security features and assurances through control of changes made to hardware, software, firmware, documentation, test, test fixtures, and test documentation throughout the life cycle of an information system. For example, configuration requirements may be different for a network firewall that functions as part of an organization's Internet boundary versus one that functions as an internal local network firewall.

Configuration management is used to maintain an understanding of the status of complex assets with a view to maintaining the highest level of serviceability for the lowest cost. Specifically, it aims to ensure that operations are not disrupted due to the asset or parts of the asset overrunning limits of planned lifespan or below quality levels.

In the military, this type of activity is often classed as "mission readiness", and seeks to define which assets are available and for which type of mission; a classic example is whether aircraft on board an aircraft carrier are equipped with bombs for ground support or missiles for defense. Configuration management can be used to maintain OS configuration files. Many of these systems utilize Infrastructure as Code to define and maintain configuration.

The Promise Theory of configuration maintenance was developed by Mark Burgess , [13] [14] [15] with a practical implementation on present day computer systems in the software CFEngine able to perform real time repair as well as preventive maintenance.

Understanding the "as is" state of an asset and its major components is an essential element in preventive maintenance as used in maintenance, repair, and overhaul and enterprise asset management systems. Complex assets such as aircraft, ships, industrial machinery etc. This serviceability is often defined in terms of the amount of usage the component has had since it was new, since fitted, since repaired, the amount of use it has had over its life and several other limiting factors.

Understanding how near the end of their life each of these components is has been a major undertaking involving labor-intensive record keeping until recent developments in software. Many types of component use electronic sensors to capture data which provides live condition monitoring.

This data is analyzed on board or at a remote location by computer to evaluate its current serviceability and increasingly its likely future state using algorithms which predict potential future failures based on previous examples of failure through field experience and modeling.

This is the basis for "predictive maintenance". Availability of accurate and timely data is essential in order for CM to provide operational value and a lack of this can often be a limiting factor.

Capturing and disseminating the operating data to the various support organizations is becoming an industry in itself.

The consumers of this data have grown more numerous and complex with the growth of programs offered by original equipment manufacturers OEMs. These are designed to offer operators guaranteed availability and make the picture more complex with the operator managing the asset but the OEM taking on the liability to ensure its serviceability.

A number of standards support or include configuration management, [16] including:. More recently configuration management has been applied to large construction projects which can often be very complex and have a huge number of details and changes that need to be documented. Construction agencies such as the Federal Highway Administration have used configuration management for their infrastructure projects.

These programs can also store information to aid in the maintenance and modification of the infrastructure when it is completed. This study yielded results indicating a benefit to using configuration management on projects of this nature. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the broad systems engineering process. Management accounting Financial accounting Financial audit. Business entities. Corporate group Conglomerate company Holding company Cooperative Corporation Joint-stock company Limited liability company Partnership Privately held company Sole proprietorship State-owned enterprise.

Corporate governance. Annual general meeting Board of directors Supervisory board Advisory board Audit committee. Corporate law. Commercial law Constitutional documents Contract Corporate crime Corporate liability Insolvency law International trade law Mergers and acquisitions. Corporate title. Commodity Public economics Labour economics Development economics International economics Mixed economy Planned economy Econometrics Environmental economics Open economy Market economy Knowledge economy Microeconomics Macroeconomics Economic development Economic statistics.

Types of management. Business analysis Business ethics Business plan Business judgment rule Consumer behaviour Business operations International business Business model International trade Business process Business statistics.

Main article: Software configuration management. Main article: Preventive maintenance. Main article: Predictive maintenance. Department of Defense. Archived from the original on 20 March Retrieved 24 March Archived from the original on 1 August Archived from the original on 16 February Retrieved 8 August Archived from the original PDF on 23 September Retrieved 22 September Federal Transportation Administration.

Archived from the original on 7 September Defense Acquisition University Press. January Archived from the original PDF on 11 February Retrieved 25 March Secretary of Defense. Archived from the original on 21 October Retrieved 23 March Defense Technical Information Center.

Retrieved 14 May Department of Defense: United States of America. Retrieved 21 July Retrieved 23 November Burgess, On the theory of system administration, Science of Computer Programming 49,

Configuration management

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In Software Engineering, Software Configuration Management SCM is a process to systematically manage, organize, and control the changes in the documents, codes, and other entities during the Software Development Life Cycle. The primary goal is to increase productivity with minimal mistakes. SCM is part of cross-disciplinary field of configuration management and it can accurately determine who made which revision. In this software engineering tutorial, you will learn- Why do we need Configuration management? The primary reasons for Implementing Technical Software Configuration Management System are: There are multiple people working on software which is continually updating It may be a case where multiple version, branches, authors are involved in a software config project, and the team is geographically distributed and works concurrently Changes in user requirement, policy, budget, schedule need to be accommodated. Software should able to run on various machines and Operating Systems Helps to develop coordination among stakeholders SCM process is also beneficial to control the costs involved in making changes to a system Any change in the software configuration Items will affect the final product.

SCM practices define for development teams how software will be developed and eventually released. Teams can maximize their effectiveness by applying best practices that enable rapid delivery. Choosing the right processes and practices are essential for success. Gartner analyst Sean Kenefick says Oftentimes the processes organizations establish to support SCM tools are overly complicated or not complicated enough. Even if a process doesn t work, they continue to use it instead of continually looking at their processes and making improvements.

Software Configuration Management in Software Engineering

This presentation explores how to apply risk based software configuration management practices to safety critical software. Most safety critical software systems today are made up of many different components and are built using many different tools. The larger the projects, the more components there typically are and the more people there are involved in creating, using, and sharing access to all of the components. Software configuration management SCM provides the technical and managerial mechanisms needed to identify those components, coordinate their interrelationships, manage and communicate changes to those components over time and successfully build and release a set of highly reliable deliverables.

Поиски ключа не дали никаких результатов. Сьюзан надеялась, что Стратмору не придется долго возиться с отключением ТРАНСТЕКСТА. Шум и мелькающие огни в шифровалке делали ее похожей на стартовую площадку ракеты.

Software Configuration Management Best Practices

Concepts in configuration management systems

Это Испания. Если вы по глупости упадете, то это будет ваша личная глупость, кто бы ни придумал эти ступени. Халохот остановился у одного из окон, расположенных на уровне его плеча, и посмотрел на улицу. Он находился на северной стороне башни и, по всей видимости, преодолел уже половину подъема. За углом показалась смотровая площадка.

Мидж покачала головой. - В Космополитене пишут, что две трети просьб потереть спинку кончаются сексом. Бринкерхофф возмутился. - У нас ничего такого не случалось.

Регистратура. Бедлам. Так он и. Очередь из десяти человек, толкотня и крик. Испания не славится эффективностью бюрократического аппарата, и Беккер понял, что ему придется простоять здесь всю ночь, чтобы получить информацию о канадце. За конторкой сидела только одна секретарша, норовившая избавиться от назойливых пациентов. Беккер застыл в дверях, не зная, как поступить.


Basic elements of IEEE ❖ Configuration Management Tools. ❖ CVS at a glance. ◇ The basics of CVS. ◇ Examples for the most common use cases.


Да, да, прямо. К тому же у нас вышел из строя генератор. Я требую направить сюда всю энергию из внешних источников.

Но что будет, если какое-нибудь будущее правительство станет вести себя .

 Отлично. А теперь - за работу. ГЛАВА 12 Дэвиду Беккеру приходилось бывать на похоронах и видеть мертвых, но на этот раз его глазам открылось нечто особенно действующее на нервы.

Рядом с собором на сто двадцать метров вверх, прямо в занимающуюся зарю, поднималась башня Гиральда. Это и был Санта-Крус, квартал, в котором находится второй по величине собор в мире, а также живут самые старинные и благочестивые католические семьи Севильи. Беккер пересек мощенную камнем площадь.

3 comments

Boris C.

The main purpose of this survey is to introduce readers to SCM in software and hypermedia engineering, presenting general concepts, principles and techniques.

REPLY

Eva G.

SCM process. other activities or organizational elements. organizational element or designated individual. concepts are applicable. configuration items falling.

REPLY

Tim B.

Configuration management CM is a systems engineering process for establishing and maintaining consistency of a product's performance, functional, and physical attributes with its requirements, design, and operational information throughout its life.

REPLY

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